ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs regarding reading skills in 14 reading disabled Swedish children in grade two. Method: The children’s results from two different decoding measures plus identification by teachers as having reading difficulties were used to select the participants. Seven of the children used Omega-IS, which entails computerized top-down, orthographic training and no additional homework, and seven children used non-computerized Reading Recovery inspired training with some components of phonological training included plus 20 homework occasions. For both programs the training sessions were conducted individually (one-to-one teaching) and lasted between 15 and 45 minutes. Results: Both groups improved significantly in all tests assessing word and non-word decoding as a result of the intervention. No significant differences were yielded between the intervention programs. Conclusion: The conclusion is that one-to-one teaching has a positive impact regardless whether a top-down or a reading instructional strategy with phonological components is implemented. Due to the result of the Omega-IS group it might also be possible to reduce homework for reading disabled children if reading is well tutored in school.
Cite this paper
nullFälth, L. , Svensson, I. & Tjus, T. (2011). The Effects of Two Training Programs Regarding Reading Development among Children with Reading Disabilities. Psychology, 2, 173-180. doi: 10.4236/psych.2011.23028.
  Alexander, A. W., & Slinger-Constant, A.-M. (2004). Current status of treatments for dyslexia: Critical review. Journal of Child Neurology, 19, 744-758.
 Alstam-Malcus, A., & Fritzell, M. (2006). Vad sa du fr?ken? Ume?: Specialpedagogiska institutet.
 Bakker, D. J. (2006). Treatment of development dyslexia: A review. Paediatric Rehabilitation, 9, 3-13.
 Ball, E. W., & Blachman, B. A. (1988). Phoneme segmentation training: Effect on reading readiness. Annals of Dyslexia, 38, 208-225.
 Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorising sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 301, 419-421.
 Bruck, M. (1992). Persistence of dyslexics’ phonological awareness deficits. Developmental Psychology, 28, 874-886.
 Clay, M. (1993). Reading recovery: A guidebook for teachers in training. Auckland: Heinemann Education.
 Ehri, L. C., Nunes, S. R., Willows, D. M., Valeska Schuster, B., Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z., & Shanahan, T. (2001). Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta-analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 36, 250-287. doi:10.1598/RRQ.36.3.2
 Elbro, C., & Petersen, D. K. (2004). Long term effects of phoneme awareness and letter sound training: An intervention study with children at risk for dyslexia. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 660-670. doi:10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1680
 Frost, J. (2002). L?sundervisning — Praktik och teorier. Stockholm: Natur och Kultur.
 Galaburda, A. M., Sherman, G. F., Rosen, G. D., Aboitiz, F., & Geschwind, N. (1985). Developmental dyslexia: Four consecutive cases with cortical anomalies. Annals of Neurology, 18, 222-233.
 Grigorenko, E. L. (2009). Dynamic assessment and response to intervention: Two sides of one coin. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42, 111-132. doi:10.1177/0022219408326207
 Grigorenko, E., Ngorosho, D., Jukes, M., & Bundy, D. (2006). Reading in able and disabled readers from around the world: Same or different? An illustration from a study of reading-related processes in a Swahili sample of siblings. Journal of Research in Reading, 29, 104-123. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9817.2006.00295.x
 Gustafson, S., Samuelsson, S., & R?nnberg, J. (2000). Why do some resist phonological intervention? A Swedish longitudinal study of poor readers in grade 4. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 44, 145-162. doi:10.1080/713696666
 Gustafson, S., Ferreira, J., & R?nnberg, J. (2007). DOT: Datorbaserad ortografisk tr?ning. link?ping: Institutionen f?r beteendevetenskap/ Institutet f?r handikappvetenskap, Link?pings universitet.
 Hart, B. & Riesly, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American Children. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
 Harter, S. (2006). The self. In: N. Eisenberg, W. Damon & R. M. Lerner, Eds., Handbook of Child Psychology, Social, emotional, and personality development, 6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc, Hoboken, 3, 505-570.
 Heimann, M., Lund?lv, M., Tjus, T., & Nelson, K. E. (2004). Omega- IS, a multimedia software for enhancing language and communi- cation development in children with disabilities.
 Humphrey, N. (2002). Teacher and pupil ratings of self-esteem in developmental dyslexia. British Journal of Special Education, 29, 29- 36. doi:10.1111/1467-8527.00234
 Jacobson, C. (1993). Manual till ordkedjetestet. The Word chains test; Manual. Psykologif?rlaget, Stockholm.
 J?rgensen, K. (2001). Lyckas med l?sning, l?s- och skrivinl?rning i Nya Zeeland. Stockholm: Bonnier Utbildning AB.
 Lundberg, I. (1985). Spr?k och l?sning. Stockholm: Liber.
 Lundberg, I., Olofsson, ?., & Wall, S. (1980). Reading and spelling skills in the first school years predicted from phonemic awareness skills in kindergarten. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 21, 159- 173. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.1980.tb00356.x
 McNulty, M. A. (2003). Dyslexia and the life course. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36, 363-381.
 Morgan, A. E., & Hynd, G. W. (1998). Dyslexia, neurolinguistic ability, and anatomical variation of the plenum temporal. Neuropsychological Review, 8, 79-93. doi:10.1023/A:1025609216841
 Olofsson, ?., & Hemmingsson, I. (1993). Fonolek. LPC ?stersunds kommun.
 Poskiparta, E., Niemi, P., & Vauras, M. (1999). Who benefits from training in linguistic awareness in the first grade, and what components show training effects? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32, 437-446, 456.
 Psykologif?rlaget, A. B. (1995). Raven’s Matrices — Coloured. Stock- holm: Psykologif?rlaget.
 Rack, J. P., Snowling, M. J., & Olson, R. K. (1992). The nonword reading deficit in developmental dyslexia. Reading Research Quarterly, 27, 29-53. doi:10.2307/747832
 Raven, C., & Raven. (1994). Raven’s coloured progressive matrices. Psykologif?rlaget.
 Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360-407. doi:10.1598/RRQ.21.4.1
 Svensson, I., & Jacobson, C. (2006). How persistent are phonological difficulties? A longitudinal study of reading retarded children. Dyslexia, 12, 3-20. doi:10.1002/dys.296
 Taube, K., Tornéus, M., & Lundberg, I. (1984). UMESOL. Stockholm: Psykologif?rlaget.
 Tjus, T. (1998). Language and literacy acquisition in children with developmental and learning disabilities. G?teborgs Universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
 Tjus, T., Heimann, M., & Nelson, K. E. (2004). Interaction patterns between children and their teachers when using a specific multimedia and communication strategy: Observations from children with autism and mixed handicaps. Autism, 5, 175-188.
 Tjus, T., Heimann, M. & Nelson, K. E. (2004). Reading acquisition by implementing a multimedia intervention strategy for fifty children with autism or other learning and communication disabilities. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioural Psychotherapies, 2, 203- 221.
 Torgesen, J. K., Alexander, A. W., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Voeller, K. K. S., & Conway, T. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34.
 Torgesen, J. K., Morgan, S., & Davis, C. (1992). Effects of two types of phonological awareness training on word learning in kindergarten children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 364-370.
 Wise, B. W., Ring, J., & Olson, R. K. (1999). Training phonological awareness with and without explicit attention to articulation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 72, 271-304.