JBM  Vol.3 No.6 , June 2015
Phytoremediation Potential of Sorghum as a Biofuel Crop and the Enhancement Effects with Microbe Inoculation in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil
Abstract: Phytoremediation is an eco-friendly and low-cost biotechnology using plants to extract, contain, degrade, or immobilize pollutants from the contaminated environment. Selection of the ideal plant species and suitable enhancing measures to obtain high remediation efficiency and large valuable biomass are essential requirement for a successful phytoremdaition. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is one of the most attractive bioenergy crops for producing biofuels with high biomass production. In this study, the phytoremediation potential of sorghum to heavy metals and the promotion effects by a lead-tolerant fungus (LTF) were investigated using a multiple heavy metal contaminated soil with Pb, Ni, and Cu. The results showed that the sorghum survived the heavy contamination, and LTF inoculation promoted the plant growth and increased the phytoextraction yields of Pb, Ni, and Cu. The phytoextraction potential (μg/plant) of the whole sorghum for Sorghum were 410 (Pb), 74 (Ni), and 73 (Cu), and for Sorghum with LTF inoculation were 590 (Pb), 120 (Ni), and 93 (Cu), respectively. The results suggested that sorghum would be one of the ideal candidates for phytoremediation of contaminated soil because of its high phytoremediation potential, large biomass production, and utilization in biofuel production.
Cite this paper: Oh, K. , Cao, T. , Cheng, H. , Liang, X. , Hu, X. , Yan, L. , Yonemochi, S. and Takahi, S. (2015) Phytoremediation Potential of Sorghum as a Biofuel Crop and the Enhancement Effects with Microbe Inoculation in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 3, 9-14. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2015.36002.

[1]   Oh, K., Li, T., Cheng, H., Xie, Y. and Yonemochi, S. (2013) Study on Tolerance and Accumulation Potential of Biofuel Crops for Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 4, 152-156.

[2]   EPA (2000) Introduction to Phytoremediation. EPA/600/R-99/107.

[3]   Jiang, C.Y., Sheng, X.F., Qian, M. and Wang, Q.Y. (2008) Isolation and Characterization of a Heavy Metal-Resistant Burkholderia sp. from Heavy Metal-Contaminated Paddy Field Soil and Its Potential in Promoting Plant Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation in Metal-Polluted Soil. Chemosphere, 72, 157-164.

[4]   Oh, K., Li, T., Cheng, H.Y., Hu, X., Lin, Q. and Xie, Y. (2013) A Primary Study on Assessment of Phytoremediation Potential of Biofuel Crops in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 295-298, 1135-1138.

[5]   Oh, K., Cao, T., Li, T. and Cheng, H. (2014) Study on Application of Phytoremediation Technology in Management and Remediation of Contaminated Soils. Journal of Clean Energy Technology, 2, 216-220.

[6]   Chintakovid, W., Visoottiviseth, P., Khokiattiwong, S. and Lauengsuchonkul, S. (2008) Potential of the Hybrid Marigolds for Arsenic Phytoremediation and Income Generation of Remediators in Ron Phibun District, Thailand. Chemosphere, 70, 1532-1537.

[7]   Li, T., Cheng, H., Oh, K., et al. (2013) Effect of Humic Acid and Bacterial Manure on Distribution of Heavy Metals in Different Organs of Maize. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 5, 393-397.

[8]   Cao, T.H., Mu, Z.S., Wang, S.P., Yan, H.Y., Liang, X.H., Fan, Z.W. and Jin, R.D. (2012) Screening of Lead Resistant Microorganism and Preliminary Study on the Effect of Repairing Lead Polluted Soil by EDDS Chelating Induced Ryegrass. Journal of Jilin Agricultural Sciences, 37, 34-36. (In Chinese)

[9]   Aremu, M.O., Ogundola, A.K. and Emmanuel, O.T. (2013) Phytoextraction Potential of Vetiveria zizanioides on Heavy Metals. European Scientific Journal, 9, 1857-7431.

[10]   Metwali, M.R., Gowayed, S.M.H., Al-Maghrabi, O.A. and Mosleh, Y.Y. (2013) Evaluation of Toxic Effect of Copper and Cadmium on Growth, Physiological Traits and Protein Profile of Wheat (Triticum aestivium L.), Maize (Zea mays L.) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.). World Applied Sciences Journal, 21, 301-314.

[11]   Soudek, P., Petrová, ?., Vaňková, R., Song, J. and Vaněk, T. (2014) Accumulation of Heavy Metals Using Sorghum sp. Che-mosphere, 104, 15-24.

[12]   Su, Y., Han, F.X., Sridhar, B.B.M. and Monts, D.L. (2005) Phytotoxicity and Phytoaccumulation of Trivalent and Hexavalent Chromium in Brake Fern. Environ Toxicol Chem, 24, 2019-2026.

[13]   Angelova, V.R., Ivanova, R.V., De-libaltova, A.V. and Ivanov, K.I. (2011) Use of Sorghum Crops for in Situ Phytoremediation of Polluted Soils. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A, 1, 693-702.

[14]   Mohebbi, A. (2012) Capability of Heavy Metals Absorption by Corn, Alfalfa and Sunflower Intercropping Date Palm. Advances in Environmental Biology, 6, 2886-2893.

[15]   Wang, J., Yang, N., Dong, E., Wang, L., Wu, A., Ding, Y., Bai, W. and Jiao, X. (2013) Effect of Different Plant Density on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Sorghum. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 29, 253-258.

[16]   Marchiol, L., Fellet, G., Perosa, D., Zaccheo, P. and Zerbi, G. (2010) Phytoremediation of Soils Polluted by Heavy Metals and Metalloids Using Crops: (ii) Early Results from the in Situ Experiment of Torviscosa (Udine). Italian Journal of Agronomy, 3, 15-29.