JSS  Vol.3 No.6 , June 2015
Geography of Insurgency—Contextualization of Ethno-Nationalism in Northeast India
Author(s) Leishipem Khamrang*
ABSTRACT
Northeast India has been plagued by insurgency related violence and conflicts for many decades. The greater threat and concern have been, however, the rising regional tensions albeit promulgation of series of insurgency crack-down policies by successive central and state governments since the 1950s. To contain insurgency activities, new winning formulas have been announced occasionally, promising incentives or job to the surrenderees, with events of surrendering insurgent’s ceremonies yet several newer insurgents and splinter groups have been formed. The volatile state power relations intrigue the entire geopolitical condition and create space for development of newer geographical landscape of conflict thereby turning the region to one of the most sensitive regions in India. The paper is an attempt to examine the emergence of insurgency movements, the nature of contextualization insurgency activities and spatial conflict in Northeast India in the backdrop of the contesting state power relation.

Cite this paper
Khamrang, L. (2015) Geography of Insurgency—Contextualization of Ethno-Nationalism in Northeast India. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 3, 103-113. doi: 10.4236/jss.2015.36017.
References
[1]   Lohman, A.D. and Flint, C. (2010) The Geography of Insurgency. Geography Compass, 4, 1154-1156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-8198.2010.00361.x

[2]   Banerjee-Guha, S. (2011) Contemporary Globalization and the Politics of Space. Economic and Political Weekly, 46, 41-44.

[3]   Polk, R.W. (2007) Violent Politics. A History of Insurgency, Terrorism and Guerrilla Warfare. Hay House Publishers India, New Delhi.

[4]   Siddiqi, S.R. (2010) Insurgency Movements in India. Failure of the Indian Government to Address the Root Causes Could Lead to a Domino Effect in South Asia.
http://axisoflogic.com/artman/publish/Article_61885.shtml

[5]   Ahmad, R. (2009) Contesting Geo-Bodies and Rise of Sub-Nationalism in Northeast India: A Case of Nagas and Khasi. Ph.D. Dissertation, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.

[6]   Kamei, G. (2011) Feudalism in Pre-Colonial Manipur. Dialogue, 12.
http://www.asthabharati.org/Dia_Jan%20011/gang.htm

[7]   Scheafer, W. (n.d.) The Economics of Insurgencies: A Framework for Analyzing Contemporary Insurgency Movements with a Focus on Exposing Economic Vulnerability. iSites-Harvard University, Research Paper.

[8]   McColl, R.A. (1969) The Insurgent State: Territorial Bases of Revolution. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 59, 613-631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1969.tb01803.x

[9]   Bhaumik, S. (2009) Troubled Periphery: Crisis of Indian’s Northeast. Sage Publication, New Delhi. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9788132104797

[10]   Shimray, T. (2005) Let Freedom Ring: Story of Naga Nationalism. Promilla & Company Publishers, New Delhi.

[11]   Nag, S. (2013) Expanding Imagination: Theory and Praxis of Naga Nation Making in Post Colonial Period. In: Tanweer, F., Ed., Minority Nationalisms in South Asia, South Asian History and Culture, Routledge, New York, 14-34.

[12]   Chasie, C. and Hazarika, S. (2009) The State Strikes Back: India and the Naga Insurgency. Policy Studies No. 52, East- West Center, Washington DC.

[13]   Chandola, H. (2013) The Naga Story, First Armed Struggle in India. Chicken Neck, New Delhi.

[14]   Lintner, B. (2012) Great Game East. India, China and the Struggle for Asia’s Most Volatile Frontier. Harper Collins, New Delhi.

[15]   Welman, F. (2011) Out of Isolation: Exploring and Forgotten World. HPC Publishers and Distributers, New Delhi.

[16]   Vashum, R. (2000) Nagas’ Right to Self Determination: An Anthropological Perspective. Mittal Publication, New Delhi.

[17]   Dev, N. (2009) The Talking Guns, Northeast India. Manas Publications, New Delhi.

[18]   Bharatiya Janata Party (2012) Assam Riot 2012.
http://www.bjp.org/images/publications/assam_booklet.pdf

[19]   Das, S.K. (2007) Conflict and Peace in India’s Northeast: The Role of Civil Society. Policies Studies No.42, East-West Center, Washington DC.

[20]   Pudaite, L. (2005) Mizoram. In: Murayama, M., Inoue, K. and Hazarika, S., Eds., Sub-Regional Relations in the Eastern South Asia: With Special Focus on India’s North Eastern Region, Joint Research Program Series No.133, 153-240. http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Jrp/133.html

[21]   Bhaumik, S. (2007) Insurgencies in India’s Northeast: Conflict Co-Option and Change. Working Paper No.10, East West Center, Washington DC.

[22]   Gosh, B. (2003) Ethnicity and Insurgency in Tripura. Sociological Bulletin, 52, 221-242.

[23]   Bhaumik, S. (2012) Tripura: Ethnic Conflict, Militancy and Counterinsurgency, Policies and Practices—52. Mahanirbam Calcutta Research Group. http://www.mcrg.ac.in/PP52.pdf

[24]   Phukan, M.D. (2013) Ethnicity, Conflict and Population Displacement in Northeast India. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1, 91-101.

[25]   Bhattacharyya, H. (1990) Communism, Nationalism and Tribal Questions in Tripura. Economic and Political Weekly, 25, 2209-2214.

[26]   Saha, A. (2005) Tripura. In: Murayama, M., Inoue, K. and Hazarika, S., Eds., Sub-Regional Relations in the Eastern South Asia: With Special Focus on India’s North Eastern Region, Joint Research Program Series No.133, 298-317. http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Jrp/133.html

[27]   Lyngdoh, C.R. and Gassah, L.S. (2003) Decade of Inter-Ethnic Tension. Economic and Political Weekly, 38, 5024- 5026.

[28]   Srikanth, H. (2005) Prospects of Liberal Democracy in Meghalaya: A Study of Civil Society’s Response to KSU-Led Agitation. Economic and Political Weekly, 40, 3987-3993.

[29]   Mazumdar, P. (2011) Former Dawood Man Forms Militants Outfit in Arunachal Pradesh. http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-former-dawood-man-forms-militant-outfit-in-arunachal-pradesh-1627457

[30]   Choudhury, R.D. (2012) ULFA promoting New Outfit in Arunachal Pradesh.
http://www.assamtribune.com/scripts/detailsnew.asp?id=sep2412/at07

[31]   Toft, M.D. (2005) The Geography of Ethnic Violence. Identity, Interests and the Indivisibility of Territory. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

[32]   Murphy, A.B. (1990) Historical Justification for Territorial Claims. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 80, 531-548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1990.tb00316.x

[33]   Murphy, A.B. (2005) Territorial Ideology and Interstate Conflict Comparative Consideration. In: Flint, C., Ed., Geography of War and Peace, Oxford University Press, New York, 281-296.

[34]   Newman, D. (2005) Conflict at the Interface, the Impact of Boundaries and Borders on Contemporary Ethno-National Conflict. In: Flint, C., Ed., The Geography of War and Peace, Oxford University Press, New York, 321-344.

[35]   O’Loughlin, J. (2005) The Political Geography of Conflict, Civil War in the Hegemonic Shadow. In: Flint, C., Ed., The Geography of War and Peace, Oxford University Press, New York, 85-109.

[36]   Gurr, T.R. (2011) Why Men Rebel. Paradigm Publishers, London.

[37]   Bookman, Z.M. (1991) The Political Economy of Discontinuous Development, Regional Disparities and Inter-Regional Conflict. Praeger Publishers, New York.

[38]   Bhattacharya, R. (2011) Development Disparities in Northeast India. Cambridge University Press India, New Delhi.

[39]   O’Neil, B.E. (2005) Insurgency and Terrorism: From Revolution to Apocalypse. Potomac Books, Washington DC.

[40]   Khamrang, L. (2013) Contemporary Politics of Development and Spatial Conflict in Northeast India. Proceedings of the International Conference Geography of Change: Contemporary Issue in Development, Environment and Society, Thane, 11-12 January 2013, 153-164.

[41]   Peet, R. (2005) Geography of Power, the Making of Global Economic Policy. Zed Book, London.

[42]   Biswas, P. (2012) Re-Imagining India’s Northeast: Beyond Territory and State. Journal of North East India Studies, 2, 68-78.

[43]   Yiftachel, O. (1997) The Political Geography of Ethnic Protest: Nationalism, Deprivation and Regionalism among Arabs in Israel. Transaction of Institute British Geographer, 22, 91-110.

 
 
Top