SNL  Vol.5 No.3 , July 2015
Nanomaterials in Biomedicine
ABSTRACT
Nowadays, nanomaterials have become an emerging field that has shown great promise in the development of novel diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including cancer, due to their nanoscale size effects and increased surface area. In comparison to their larger counterparts, nanomaterials have unique physicochemical and biological properties including size, shape, chemical composition, surface structure and charge, aggregation and agglomeration, and solubility which can affect their interactions with biomolecules and cells. Nanoparticles (NPs) with size-tunable light emission have demonstrated an impressive potential as high-efficiency delivery transporters for biomolecules into cells, being used to produce exceptional images of tumor sites. Moreover, NPs delivery system has been widely applied in pharmaceutical field to enhance absorption of bioactive compounds since they can interact with several phytochemicals by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to encapsulate these phytochemicals in NPs and thus enhance aqueous solubility of the chemicals. Moreover, NPs also can prevent against oxidation/degradation of the phytochemicals encapsulated in the gastrointestinal tract and can be taken directly up by epithelial cells in the small intestine resulting in the increase of absorption and bioavailability of phytochemicals. In general, there are two specific fields of utilization of intrinsically active NPs as pharmacologic agents including oxidative-related pathologies and cancer. On the other hand, Redox active NPs have been shown to ameliorate many clinically relevant pathological disorders that implicate oxidative stress, reducing the oxidative burden and alleviating many important symptoms. Such NPs act either in a catalytic way resembling the action of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase, or as activating surfaces to facilitate reactions between the aqueous environment and the reactive oxygen species present at high level in the pathological tissues.

Cite this paper
Abdel-Wahhab, M. and Márquez, F. (2015) Nanomaterials in Biomedicine. Soft Nanoscience Letters, 5, 53-54. doi: 10.4236/snl.2015.53006.
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