The Basics of Flat Space Cosmology

Affiliation(s)

^{1}
760 Campbell Ln. Ste. 106 #161, Bowling Green, USA.

^{2}
Honorary Faculty, I-SERVE, Alakapuri, Hyderabad-35, Telangana, India.

^{3}
Department of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India.

ABSTRACT

We present a new model of cosmology which appears to show great promise. Our flat space cosmology model, using only four basic and reasonable assumptions, derives highly accurate Hubble parameter*H*_{0},
Hubble radius *R*_{0} and total
mass *M*_{0} values for our observable
universe. Our model derives a current Hubble parameter of , in excellent
agreement with the newly reported (lower limit) results of the 2015 Planck
Survey. Remarkably, all of these derivations can be made with only these basic
assumptions and the current CMB radiation temperature . The
thermodynamic equations we have generated follow Hawking’s black hole
temperature formula. We have also derived a variety of other useful cosmological
formulae. These include angular velocity and other rotational formulae. A
particularly useful hyperbolic equation, , has been
derived, which appears to be an excellent fit for the Planck scale as well as
the current observable universe scale. Using the flat space Minkowski
relativistic formula for Doppler effect, and a formula for staging our cosmological
model according to its average mass-energy density at every Hubble time
(universal age) in its expansion, a persuasive argument can be made that the
observable phenomena attributed to dark energy are actually manifestations of
Doppler and gravitational redshift. Finally, a theory of cosmic inflation
becomes completely unnecessary because our flat space cosmology model is always
at critical density.

We present a new model of cosmology which appears to show great promise. Our flat space cosmology model, using only four basic and reasonable assumptions, derives highly accurate Hubble parameter

KEYWORDS

Flat Space Cosmology, Cosmic Inflation, Dark Energy, Hubble Parameter, Critical Density, Angular Velocity, Light Speed Expansion, Light Speed Rotation, Redshift, Universe, CMBR

Flat Space Cosmology, Cosmic Inflation, Dark Energy, Hubble Parameter, Critical Density, Angular Velocity, Light Speed Expansion, Light Speed Rotation, Redshift, Universe, CMBR

Cite this paper

Tatum, E. , Seshavatharam, U. and Lakshminarayana, S. (2015) The Basics of Flat Space Cosmology.*International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics*, **5**, 116-124. doi: 10.4236/ijaa.2015.52015.

Tatum, E. , Seshavatharam, U. and Lakshminarayana, S. (2015) The Basics of Flat Space Cosmology.

References

[1] Mitra, A. (2013) Energy of Einstein’s Static Universe and Its Implications for the ΛCDM Cosmology. Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 03, 7.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2013/03/007

[2] Tatum, E.T. (2015) Could Our Universe Have Features of a Giant Black Hole? Journal of Cosmology, 25. (Part I, in Press)

[3] Tatum, E.T. (2015) How a Black Hole Universe Theory Might Resolve Some Cosmological Conundrums. Journal of Cosmology, 25. (Part II, in Press)

[4] Seshavatharam, U.V.S. and Lakshminarayana, S. (2014) Friedmann Cosmology: Reconsideration and New Results. International Journal of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science, 1, 16-26.

[5] Seshavatharam, U.V.S. and Lakshminarayana, S. (2015) Primordial Hot Evolving Black Holes and the Evolved Primordial Cold Black Hole Universe. Frontiers of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology, 1, 16-23.

[6] Pathria, R.K. (1972) The Universe as a Black Hole. Nature, 240, 298-299.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/240298a0

[7] Hawking, S.W. (1975) Particle Creation by Black Holes. Communications in Mathematical Physics, 43, 199-220.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02345020

[8] Steinhardt, P.J. (2011) The Inflation Debate: Is the Theory at Heart of Modern Cosmology Deeply Flawed? Scientific American, 304, 18-25.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0411-36

[9] Planck Collaboration: Planck 2015 Results. XIII. Cosmological Parameters.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.01589

[10] Fixsen, D.J. (2009) The Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background. The Astrophysical Journal, 707, 916.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/707/2/916

[11] Hubble, E.P. (1929) A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 15, 168-173.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.15.3.168

[12] Hubble, E.P. (1947) The 200-Inch Telescope and Some Problems It May Solve. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 59, 153-167.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/125931

[13] Milgrom, M. (1983) A Modification of the Newtonian Dynamics as a Possible Alternative to the Hidden Mass Hypothesis. Astrophysical Journal, 270, 365-370.

[14] Brownstein, J.R. and Moffat, J.W. (2006) Galaxy Rotation Curves without Non-Baryonic Dark Matter. The Astrophysical Journal, 636, 721-741.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/498208

[15] Chadwick, E.A., Hodgkinson, T.F. and McDonald, G.S. (2013) Gravitational Theoretical Development Supporting MOND. Physical Review D, 88, Article ID: 024036.

[16] Perlmutter, S., Gabi, S., Goldhaber, G., Goobar, A., Groom, D.E., Hook, I.M., et al. (1997) Measurements of the Cosmological Parameters Ω and Λ from the First Seven Supernovae at z ≥ 0.35. Astrophysical Journal, 483, 565-581.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/304265

[17] Dicke, R.H. (1970) Gravitation and the Universe. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.

[18] Guth, A.H. (1997) The Inflationary Universe. Basic Books, New York.

[19] Longo, M.J. (2011) Detection of a Dipole in the Handedness of Spiral Galaxies with Redshifts z～0.04. Physics Letters B, 699, 224-229.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2011.04.008

[20] Sivaram, C. and Arun, K. (2012) Primordial Rotation of the Universe, Hydrodynamics, Vortices and Angular Momenta of Celestial Objects. The Open Astronomy Journal, 5, 7-11.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874381101205010007

[1] Mitra, A. (2013) Energy of Einstein’s Static Universe and Its Implications for the ΛCDM Cosmology. Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 03, 7.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2013/03/007

[2] Tatum, E.T. (2015) Could Our Universe Have Features of a Giant Black Hole? Journal of Cosmology, 25. (Part I, in Press)

[3] Tatum, E.T. (2015) How a Black Hole Universe Theory Might Resolve Some Cosmological Conundrums. Journal of Cosmology, 25. (Part II, in Press)

[4] Seshavatharam, U.V.S. and Lakshminarayana, S. (2014) Friedmann Cosmology: Reconsideration and New Results. International Journal of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science, 1, 16-26.

[5] Seshavatharam, U.V.S. and Lakshminarayana, S. (2015) Primordial Hot Evolving Black Holes and the Evolved Primordial Cold Black Hole Universe. Frontiers of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology, 1, 16-23.

[6] Pathria, R.K. (1972) The Universe as a Black Hole. Nature, 240, 298-299.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/240298a0

[7] Hawking, S.W. (1975) Particle Creation by Black Holes. Communications in Mathematical Physics, 43, 199-220.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02345020

[8] Steinhardt, P.J. (2011) The Inflation Debate: Is the Theory at Heart of Modern Cosmology Deeply Flawed? Scientific American, 304, 18-25.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0411-36

[9] Planck Collaboration: Planck 2015 Results. XIII. Cosmological Parameters.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.01589

[10] Fixsen, D.J. (2009) The Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background. The Astrophysical Journal, 707, 916.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/707/2/916

[11] Hubble, E.P. (1929) A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 15, 168-173.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.15.3.168

[12] Hubble, E.P. (1947) The 200-Inch Telescope and Some Problems It May Solve. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 59, 153-167.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/125931

[13] Milgrom, M. (1983) A Modification of the Newtonian Dynamics as a Possible Alternative to the Hidden Mass Hypothesis. Astrophysical Journal, 270, 365-370.

[14] Brownstein, J.R. and Moffat, J.W. (2006) Galaxy Rotation Curves without Non-Baryonic Dark Matter. The Astrophysical Journal, 636, 721-741.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/498208

[15] Chadwick, E.A., Hodgkinson, T.F. and McDonald, G.S. (2013) Gravitational Theoretical Development Supporting MOND. Physical Review D, 88, Article ID: 024036.

[16] Perlmutter, S., Gabi, S., Goldhaber, G., Goobar, A., Groom, D.E., Hook, I.M., et al. (1997) Measurements of the Cosmological Parameters Ω and Λ from the First Seven Supernovae at z ≥ 0.35. Astrophysical Journal, 483, 565-581.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/304265

[17] Dicke, R.H. (1970) Gravitation and the Universe. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.

[18] Guth, A.H. (1997) The Inflationary Universe. Basic Books, New York.

[19] Longo, M.J. (2011) Detection of a Dipole in the Handedness of Spiral Galaxies with Redshifts z～0.04. Physics Letters B, 699, 224-229.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2011.04.008

[20] Sivaram, C. and Arun, K. (2012) Primordial Rotation of the Universe, Hydrodynamics, Vortices and Angular Momenta of Celestial Objects. The Open Astronomy Journal, 5, 7-11.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874381101205010007