AER  Vol.3 No.2 , June 2015
Rubber Seed Kernel as Potent Solid Substrate for the Production of Lipase by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain BUP2
Abstract: This study explored the utility of flours of rubber seed, coconut and groundnut kernels, and de-oiled cakes of coconut and groundnut as solid substrate for the production of lipase by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BUP2 (MTCC No. 5924), a novel bacterium reported from the rumen of Malabari goat. Various proportions (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% or 50%) of flours or cakes were prepared (w/v) with BUP medium (pH 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8), and incubated at different temperature (25°C, 28°C, 30°C or 32°C) for 24 to 96 h. The samples were assayed for lipase activity at 24 h intervals. The rubber seed flour (20%)-BUP medium supported the maximum lipase production (871 U/gds) at 48h incubation (pH 6, 28°C), followed by ground nut flour (398 U/gds), while ground nut cake supported the least lipase production (244 U/gds). From this, it is evident that the cheaply available rubber seed is an efficient substrate for the production of lipase, irrespective of its known demerit that it contains the limarin, a toxin; in fact, we could not detect limarin in the fermented matter. Thus, the utility of rubber seed for the production of a costly enzyme is reported from a novel rumen bacterium, which would be advantageous for rubber farmers.
Cite this paper: Unni, K. , Faisal, P. , Priji, P. , Sajith, S. , Sreedevi, S. , Hareesh, E. , Roy, T. and Benjamin, S. (2015) Rubber Seed Kernel as Potent Solid Substrate for the Production of Lipase by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain BUP2. Advances in Enzyme Research, 3, 31-38. doi: 10.4236/aer.2015.32004.

[1]   Pandey, A., Benjamin, S., Soccol, C.R., Nigam, P., Krieger, N. and Soccol, V.T. (1999) The Realm of Microbial Lipases in Biotechnology. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, 29, 119-131.

[2]   Benjamin, S. and Pandey, A. (1997) Coconut Cake—A Potent Substrate for the Production of Lipase by Candida rugosa in Solid-State Fermentation. Acta Biotechnologica, 17, 241-251.

[3]   Alkan, H., Baysal, Z., Uyar, F. and Dogru, M. (2007) Production of Lipase by a Newly Isolated Bacillus coagulans under Solid-State Fermentation Using Melon Waste. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 136, 183-192.

[4]   Kempka, A.P., Lipke, N.L., Pinheiro, T.D.L.F., Menoncin, S., Treichel, H., Freire, D.M.G, Luccio, M.D. and de Oliveira, D. (2008) Response Surface Method to Optimize the Production and Characterization of Lipase from Penicillium verrucosum in Solid-State Fermentation. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 31, 119-125.

[5]   Aravindan, R., Anbumathi, P. and Viruthagiri, T. (2007) Lipase Applications in Food Industry. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 6, 141-158.

[6]   Unni, K.N., Priji, P., Geoffroy, V.A., Doble, M. and Benjamin, S. (2014) Pseudomonas aeruginosa BUP2—A Novel Strain Isolated from Malabari Goat Produces Type 2 Pyoverdine. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 5, 874- 855.

[7]   Kilcawley, K.N., Wilkinson, M.G. and Fox, P.F. (2002) Determination of Key Enzyme Activities in Commercial Peptidase and Lipase Preparations from Microbial or Animal Sources. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 31, 310-320.

[8]   Ramachandran, S.S., Singh, S.K., Larroche, C., Soccol, C.R. and Pandey, A. (2007) Oil Cakes and Their Biotechnological Applications—A Review. Bioresource Technology, 98, 2000-2009.

[9]   Chakraborty, R. and Srinivasan, M. (1993) Production of a Thermostable Alkaline Protease by a New Pseudomonas sp. by Solid Substrate Fermentation. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnoogy, 8, 7-16.

[10]   Benjamin, S. and Pandey, A. (1998) Mixed-Solid Substrate Fermentation—A Novel Process for Enhanced Lipase Production by Candida rugosa. Acta Biotechnologica, 18, 315-324.

[11]   Kaur, S., Vohra, R.M., Kapoor, M., Beg, Q.K. and Hoondal, G.S. (2001) Enhanced Production and Characterization of Highly Thermostable Alkaline Protease from Bacillus sp. P-2. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 17, 125-129.

[12]   Smitha, R.B., Jisha, V.N., Pradeep, S., Josh, M.S. and Benjamin, S. (2013) Potato Flour Mediated Solid-State Fermentation for the Enhanced Production of Bacillus thuringiensis-Toxin. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 116, 595-601.

[13]   Jisha, V.N., Smitha, R.B., Priji, P., Sajith, S. and Benjamin, S. (2014) Biphasic Fermentation Is an Efficient Strategy for the Overproduction of δ-Endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 175, 1519-1535.

[14]   Selvakumar, P. and Pandey, A. (1999) Solid-State Fermentation for the Synthesis of Inulinase from the Strains of Staphylococcus sp. and Kluyveromyces marxianus. Process Biochemistry, 34, 851-855.

[15]   Prakasham, R.S., Rao, C.S. and Sarma, P.N. (2006) Green Gram Husk—An Inexpensive Substrate for Alkaline Protease Production by Bacillus sp. in Solid-State Fermentation. Bioresource Technology, 97, 1449-1454.

[16]   Benjamin, S. and Pandey, A. (1996) Optimization of Liquid Media for Lipase Production by Candida rugosa. Bioresource Technology, 55, 167-170.

[17]   Singhania, R.R., Soccol, C.R. and Pandey, A. (2008) Application of Tropical Agro-Industrial Residues as Substrate for Solid-State Fermentation Processes. In: Pandey, A., Soccol, C.R. and Larroche, C., Eds., Current Development in Solid-State Fermentation, Springer, New York, 412-442.

[18]   Faisal, P.A., Hareesh, E.S., Priji, P., Unni, K.N., Sajith, S., Sreedevi, S., Josh, M.S. and Benjamin, S. (2014) Optimization of Parameters for the Production of Lipase from Pseudomonas sp. BUP6 by Solid State Fermentation. Advances in Enzyme Research, 2, 125-133.

[19]   Mahanta, N., Gupta, A. and Khare, S.K. (2008) Production of Protease and Lipase by Solvent Tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PseA in Solid-State Fermentation Using Jatropha curcas Seed Cake as Substrate. Bioresource Technology, 99, 1729-1735.