ABSTRACT Purpose: To study the effect of time varying/ pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on bio-logical systems by measuring regrowth and the induction of elevated levels of the stress protein hsp70 in the regenerative model Planaria Duge-sia dorotocethala. Objective: The outcomes of studies using electromagnetic fields (EMF) are dependent on pulse design, field strength (mG), frequency (Hz), duration and magnetic field/rise time (dB/ dt). Standardization of effective pulse design is necessary to avoid continuing confu-sion in the investigation of pulsing electro-magnetic field (PEMF) technology. Information from studies on hsp70 protein induction and regrowth in transected Planaria provides in-formation on EMF efficacy for potential clinical application in the treatment of ischemia reper-fusion injury and the eventual inclusion of EMF prophylaxis prior to surgery. Materials and methods: Planaria were transected equidistant between the tip of the head and the tip of the tail. Individual head and tail portions from the same worm were placed in pond water and exposed to 8, 16 or 72 Hertz PEMF for one hour daily post transection under carefully controlled exposure conditions. Regrowth of heads and tails was measured in PEMF-exposed and sham control. Protein lysates from PEMF-exposed and sham control transected heads and tails were ana-lyzed for hsp70 levels by Wes￥tern blot analy-ses. Conclusion: The degree of regrowth and hsp70 levels in transected heads and tails ex-posed to nanosecond PEMF exposures at 8, 16 or 72 Hz was frequency dependent. There are currently several views on the interaction mechanism involved in regrowth. Here we dis-cuss two: in one [7,8] we propose a direct effect on the DNA of the PEMF consensus sequence, nCTCTn, referred to as electromagnetic field response elements (EMRE) in the promoter re-gion of the stress response gene HSP70. In the second mechanism  it is proposed that EMF induce vibrations of proteins through a series of quantized low frequency phonon signals.
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nullMadkan, A. , Lin-Ye, A. , Pantazatos, S. , S. Geddis, M. , Blank, M. and Goodman, R. (2009) Frequency sensitivity of nanosecond pulse EMF on regrowth and hsp70 levels in transected planaria. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 2, 227-238. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2009.24036.
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