ACS  Vol.5 No.3 , July 2015
An Assessment of Seasonal Variation of Air Pollution in Benin City, Southern Nigeria
This study determined the effects of seasonality on air pollution in a tropical city of Southern Nigeria. This was with a view to acquiring data that would be useful in policy formulation and planning for proper management of ailments that result from seasonal variation of air pollution in the study area. Sampling for the study covered a period of six months, between mid-October 2013 and mid-April 2014. Air pollutants, taken into consideration, include particulate matter (PM0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10μm) and carbon monoxide (CO). Particulate matter was measured using a hand-held particle counter, while CO was measured with a single gas monitor (T40 Rattler). Five sampling points were selected based on stratified sampling technique, which represented five land use types monitored in the study area. Sampling was carried out twice in a week in accordance with the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi India. Sampling height was two meters above ground level. The student T-test was used to determine significant differences in monthly mean concentration of air pollutants across dry and wet seasons. The results revealed the dry season with mean values of 248568.19, 64639.04, 11140.21, 2810.39, 665.84, 320.80 particle counts for PM0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10μm and 3.01 ppm for CO concentration, was characterized by higher concentration of pollutants, while the rainy season with a mean values of 94728.24, 24745.69, 4338.29, 1158.11, 262.69, 131.36 particle counts for PM0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10μm and 2.70 ppm for CO concentration was characterized with less concentration of pollutants. The study concludes that seasonality significantly influences the concentration of pollutants in the city.

Cite this paper
Balogun, V. and Orimoogunje, O. (2015) An Assessment of Seasonal Variation of Air Pollution in Benin City, Southern Nigeria. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 5, 209-218. doi: 10.4236/acs.2015.53015.
[1]   WHO Regional Office for Europe (2000) Air Quality Guidelines. 2nd Edition, Copenhagen.

[2]   Ndiokwere, C.L. (2004) Chemistry and the Environment. A Synopsis, University of Benin, Benin City.

[3]   Ukpebor, E.E., Ukpebor, J.E., Eromomene, F., Odiase, J.I. and Okoro, D. (2010) Spatial and Diurnal Variations of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Pollution from Motor Vehicles in an Urban Space. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 19, 817-823.

[4]   Erah, P.O., Akujieze, C.N. and Oteze, G.E. (2002) The Quality of Ground Water in Benin City: A Baseline Study on Inorganic Chemicals and Microbial Contaminants of health Importance in Boreholes and Open Wells. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 1, 75-82.

[5]   Omofonmwan, S.I. and Eseigbe, J.O. (2009) Effects of Solid Waste on the Quality of Underground Water in Benin Metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology, 26, 99-105.

[6]   National Bureau of Statistics (2009) Social Statistics in Nigeria. Official Results of the 2006 National Census.

[7]   Australian Standard 2922 (1987) Ambient Air—Guide for the Siting of Sampling Units. Standards Association of Australia, Home bush NSW, Australia.

[8]   Jacobson, M.Z. (2005) Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modelling. 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, New York.

[9]   Rene, G.T. (2008) An Air Quality Baseline Assessment for the Vaal Air Shed in South Africa. A Master Thesis Dissertation, Geoinformatics and Meteorology Department, University of Pretoria, South Africa.

[10]   Ukpebor, E.E., Ukpebor, J.E., Oviasogie, P.O., Odiase, J.I. and Egbeme, M.A. (2006) Field Comparison of Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) Samplers to Assess Spatial Variation. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 63, 567-577.

[11]   International Standards Organisation ISO 14644-1 (1999) Clean Rooms and Associated Controlled Environments-Part 1: Classification of Air Cleanliness.