FNS  Vol.2 No.4 , June 2011
Iron and Folate Contents of Tajik Legumes
Abstract: Seven varieties of Tajik legumes and two Tajik snack type ready-to-eat (RTE) whole/split chickpeas were analyzed for iron in raw and cooked legumes and for naturally occurring folate content in cooked legumes. Iron was measured according to AACC method 40 - 41B. Folate contents were determined by microbiological (Lactobacillus casei subsp. Rhamnosus ATCC 7469) and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis utilizing a tri-enzyme treatment (pro-tease, α-amylase and conjugase). Folate derivatives of tetrahydrofolate, 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate and 5-methyl- -tetrahydrofolate were identified and quantified. Iron content for Tajik legumes ranged from 5.52 to 13.27 mg/100 g for raw; 2.81 to 4.12 mg/100 g for cooked and 4.37 and 4.76 mg/100 g for RTE chickpeas. The total folate content of cooked legumes ranged from 53 to 81 µg/100 g for beans; 133 to 203 µg/100 g for peas, and from 39 to 22 µg/100 g for small and large lentils, respectively. The predominant form of folate in legumes was tetrahydrofolate, followed by 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate and 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate.
Cite this paper: nullS. Yarbaeva, D. Giraud and J. Albrecht, "Iron and Folate Contents of Tajik Legumes," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2011, pp. 337-343. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.24048.

[1]   R. Borwankar, T. Sanghvi and R. Houston, “What is the Extent of Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies?” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 28, Supplement 1, 2007, pp. S174-S181.

[2]   V. L. Montoya, D. Wink and M. L. Sole, “Adult Anemia: Determine Clinical Significance,” Nurse Practitioner, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2002, pp. 38-53. doi:10.1097/00006205-200203000-00007

[3]   U. Ramakrishnan, “Nutritional Anemias,” CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2001.

[4]   United Nations Children’s Fund and the Micronutrient Initiative, “Vitamin and Mineral Deficiency: A Global Progress Report,” 2004.

[5]   F. Branca, M. Ferrari, L. Mistura, L. Rossi and S. Ta- zhibayev, “Micronutrient Status Survey - Tajikistan 2003,” 2004.

[6]   C. Nishida, R. Uauy, S. Kumanyika and P. Shetty, “The Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases: Process, Product and Policy Implications,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 7, No. 1A, 2004, pp. 245-250. doi:10.1079/PHN2003592

[7]   Food and Agriculture Organization, “Preventing Micronutrient Malnutrition a Guide to Food-Based Approaches - Why Policy Makers Should Give Priority to Food-Based Strategies,” 1997.

[8]   W. J. Broughton, G. Hernandez, M. Blair, S. Beebe, P. Gepts and J. Vanderleyden, “Beans (Phaseolus spp.) – Model Food Legumes,” Plant and Soil, Vol. 252, No. 1, 2003, pp. 55-128. doi:10.1023/A:1024146710611

[9]   M. J. Messina, “Legumes and Soybeans: Overview of Their Nutritional Profiles and Health Effects,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, No. 3, 1999, pp. 439S-450S.

[10]   P. H. Graham and C. P. Vance, “Legumes: Importance and Constraints to Greater Use,” Plant Physyiology, Vol. 131, No. 3, 2003, pp. 872-877. doi:10.1104/pp.017004

[11]   S. Yarbaeva, D. Giraud and J. Albrecht, “Legume Intake of Childbearing Aged Women in Rural Tajikistan,” Eco- logy of Food and Nutrition, Vol. 47, No. 2, 2008, pp. 109-125. doi:10.1080/03670240701702370

[12]   Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization, “Vitamin and Mineral Requirements in Hu- man Nutrition: Report of a Joint FAO/ WHO Expert Con- sultation,” 2004.

[13]   A. T. Merchant and M. Dehghan, “Food Composition Database Development for between Country Comparisons,” 2006.

[14]   American Association of Cereal Chemists, “Method 40- -41B Iron-Spectrophotometric Method,” 2000.

[15]   E. W. Murphy, P. E. Criner and B. C. Gray, “Compa- risons of Methods for Calculating Retentions of Nutrients in Cooked Foods,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 23, No. 6, 1975, pp. 1153-1157. doi:10.1021/jf60202a021

[16]   J. I. Rader, C. M. Weaver and G. Angyal, “Use of a Microbiological Assay with Tri-enzyme Extraction for Measurement of Pre-fortification Levels of Folates in Enriched Cereal-Grain Products,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 62, No. 4, 1998, pp. 451-465. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00089-2

[17]   Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, “AOAC 45.2.03, AAOC Official Method 944.12 Folic Acid (Pleroylglutamic Acid) Microbiological Methods,” Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 17th Edition, Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, Washington DC, 2000, pp. 48-49.

[18]   E. S. Osseyi, “Folate Determination in Cereal-Based Foods by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, 1998.

[19]   U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, “USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Refe- rence, Release 20,” 2007.

[20]   C. Hotz and R. S. Gibson, “Traditional Food-Processing and Preparation Practices to Enhance the Bioavailability of Micronutrients in the Plant-Base Diets,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 137, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1097-1110.

[21]   S. G. C. Brazaca and F. C. D. Silva, “Enhancers and Inhibitors of Iron Availability in Legumes,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2003, pp. 1-8. doi:10.1023/B:QUAL.0000041140.50758.72

[22]   P. M. Finglas, K. Wigertz, L. Vahteristo, C. Witthoft, S. Southon and I. DeFroidmont-Gortz, “Standardisation of HPLC Techniques for the Determination of Naturally- -Occurring Folates in Food,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 64, No. 2, 1999, pp. 245-255. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00171-X

[23]   T. Tamura, “Determination of Food Folate,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 9, No. 5, 1998, pp. 285- 293. doi:10.1016/S0955-2863(98)00013-8

[24]   K. Hoppner and B. Lampi, “Folate Retention in Dried Legumes after Different Methods of Meal Preparation,” Food Research International, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1993, pp. 45-48. doi:10.1016/0963-9969(93)90104-Q

[25]   J. Jastrebova, C. Witthoft, A. Grahn, U. Svensson and M. Jagerstad, “HPLC Determination of Folates in Raw and Processed Beetroots,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 80, No. 4, 2003, pp. 579-588. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00506-X

[26]   J.-Y. Han and R. T. Tyler, ”Determination of Folate Concentrations in Pulses by a Microbiological Method Employing Trienzyme Extraction,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 51, No. 18, 2003, pp. 5315-5318. doi:10.1021/jf0211027

[27]   S. Ruggeri, L. T. Vahteristo, A. Aguzzi, P. Finglas and E. Carnovale, “Determination of Folate Vitamers in Food and in Italian Reference Diet by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 855, No. 1, 1999, pp. 237-245. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00674-3

[28]   T. Hyun and T. Tamura, “Trienzyme Extraction in Combination with Microbiologic Assay in Food Folate Analysis: An Updated Review,” Experimental Biology and Me- dicine, Vol. 230, No. 7, 2005, pp. 444-454.

[29]   M. Rychlik, K. Englert, S. Kapfer and E. Kirchhoff, “Fo- late Contents of Legumes Determined by Optimized Enzyme Treatment and Stable Isotope Dilution Assays,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 20, No. 5, 2007, pp. 411-419. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2006.10.006

[30]   E. J. Konings, H. H. Roomans, E. Dorant, R. A. Gold- bohm, W. H. Saris and P. A. Van Den Brandt, “Folate In- take of the Dutch Population According to Newly Established Liquid Chromatography Data for Foods,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 73, No. 4, 2001, pp. 765-776.

[31]   L. Vahteristo, P. M. Finglas, C. Witthoft, K. Wigertz, R. Seale and I. de Froidmont-Gortz, “Third EU MAT Intercomparison Study on Food Folate Analysis Using HPLC Procedures,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 57, No. 1, 1996, pp. 109-111. doi:10.1016/0308-8146(96)00146-X

[32]   L. Vahteristo, K. Lehikoinen, V. Ollilainen and P. Varo, “Application of an HPLC Assay for the Determination of Folate Derivatives in Some Vegetables, Fruits and Berries Consumed in Finland,” Food Chemisty, Vol. 59, No. 4, 1997, pp. 589-597. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00318-4

[33]   L. Stralsjo, K. Arkbage, C. Witthoft and M. Jagerstad, “Evaluation of a Radioprotein-Binding Assay (RPBA) for Folate Analysis in Berries and Milk,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 79, No. 4, 2002, pp. 525-534. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00392-8

[34]   D. J. McKillop, K. D. Pentieva, J. M. Scott, J. J. Strain, R. McCreedy, J. Alexander, K. Patterson, J. Hughes and H. McNulty, “Protocol for the Production of Concentrated Extracts of Food Folate for Use in Human Bioavailability Studies,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 51, No. 15, 2003, pp. 4382-4388. doi:10.1021/jf0262312

[35]   J. Dang, J. Arcot and A. Shrestha, “Folate Retention in Selected Processed Legumes,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 68, No. 3, 2000, pp. 295-298. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00202-2

[36]   D. J. McKillop, K. Pentieva, D. Daly, J. M. McPartlin, J. Hughes, J. J. Strain, J. M. Scott and H. McNulty, “The Effect of Different Cooking Methods on Folate Retention in Various Foods That Are amongst the Major Contributors to Folate Intake in the UK Diet,” British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 88, No. 6, 2002, pp. 681-688. doi:10.1079/BJN2002733