OJMM  Vol.5 No.2 , June 2015
Bacteriological Identification of Selected Pathogens in Infected Primary and Young Permanent Teeth Associated with Clinical Symptoms
ABSTRACT
Background: The common cause of dental infections is necrosis of the pulp of a tooth, which is followed by bacterial invasion through the pulp chamber into the deeper tissues. The bacterial infections are caused by host indigenous bacteria primarily aerobic gram positive cocci, anaerobic gram negative and gram negative rods. The aim of this study is to identify the presence of different cultivating microorganisms which cause dental infections in primary and young permanent teeth manifested by as abscesses and apical parodontitis. Material and Methods: Seventy kids ages 5 - 15 years ( 36 females, 34 males) were studied prospectively (I assume this) at the University Dental Clincal Center of Kosovo, Department of Pediatric Dentistry in cooperation with Microbiological Department of Faculty of Medicine. All patients who had clinical, and radiological confirmation of thier dental infections, followed by extraction of their teeth. Once the tooth was extracted blood and pus sample from the empty alveoli were cultured. The analysis of the sample for bacteria identification was done using the automated system VITEK 2 cards (Biomeriux, France). Results: Of 70 children’s with deciduous 73.5% of them had acute infection and 26.5% chronic infection. On the other hand 75% of children with permanent dentitions had chronic and 25% acute infection. In acute infections the most common aerobic bacteria was Streptococcus group with 47% (Streptococcus mitis and oralis) followed by the Actonomyces group (Actinomyces mayeri and Actinomyces odontoliticus) and anaerobic bacteria in 34%. In chronic infections streptococcus group was the prevalent aerobic group and in anaerobic infection Actinomyces mayeri and Actinomyces naeslundi was the most representative aerobes in 21% of samples. Conclusion: The dental infections in pediatric population (5 - 15 years old) are polymicrobial predominantly anaerobic bacteria over aerobic. This study paves the way for preventives measures that need to me implemented in this group of children.

Cite this paper
Kutllovci, T. , Iljovska, S. , Begzati, A. , Jankulovska, M. , Popovska, M. , Rexhepi, A. and Xhemajli, B. (2015) Bacteriological Identification of Selected Pathogens in Infected Primary and Young Permanent Teeth Associated with Clinical Symptoms. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology, 5, 59-68. doi: 10.4236/ojmm.2015.52007.
References
[1]   Ehrlich, G.D., Hu, F.Z., Shen, K., Stoodley, P. and Post, J.C. (2005) Bacterial Plurality as a General Mechanism Driving Persistance in Chronic Infections. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 437, 20-24.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16056021
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00003086-200508000-00005


[2]   Gendron, R., Grenier, D. and Maheu-Robert, L. (2000) The Oral Cavity as a Reservoir of Bacterial Pathogens for Focal Infections. Microbes and Infection, 2, 897-906.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1286-4579(00)00391-9

[3]   Caufield, P.W. (2000) Dental Caries. An Infectious and Transmissible Disease. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 47, 1001-1019.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11059347
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-3955(05)70255-8


[4]   Leonardo, M.R., Rossi, M.A., Silva, L.A., Ito., I.Y. and Bonifácio, K.C. (2002) EM Evaluation of bacterial Biofilm and Microorganisms on the Apical External Root Surface of Human Teeth. Journal of Endodontics, 28, 815-818.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12489650

[5]   Nair, P.N.R. (2000) Apical Periodontitis: A Dynamic Encounter between Root Canal Infection and Host Response. Journal of Periodontology Online, 13, 121-148.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0757.1997.tb00098.x
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0757.1997.tb00098.x/abstract


[6]   Stashenko, P., Teles, R. and D’Souza, R. (1998) Periapical Inflammatory Responses and Their Modulation. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine, 9, 498-521.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9825224
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10454411980090040701


[7]   Cohen, S. and Burns, R.C. (2002) Pathways of the pulp. CV Mosby, St. Louis.

[8]   Bergenholtz, G., Hørsted-Bindslev, P. and Reit, C. (2003) Textbook of Endodontology. Blackwell/Munksgaard, Oxford.

[9]   Tronstad, L., Barnett, F. and Cervone, F. (1990) Periapical Bacterial Plaque in Teeth Refractory to Endodontic Treatment. Endodontics & dental traumatology Journal, 6, 73-77.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2132213
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.1990.tb00394.x


[10]   Kiryu, T., Hoshino, E. and Iwaku, M. (1994) Bacteria Invading Periapical Cementum. Journal of Endodontics, 20, 169-172.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8035155
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0099-2399(06)80328-6


[11]   Lomcali, G., Sen, B.H. and Cankaya, H. (1996) Scanning Electron Microscopic Observations of Apical Root Surfaces of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis. Dental Traumatology, 12, 70-76.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9028200
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.1996.tb00100.x


[12]   Seow, W.K. (2003) Diagnosis and Management of Unusual Abscess in Children. Australian Dental Journal, 48, 156-168.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14640368

[13]   Gray, M.M., Marchment, M.D. and Anderson, R.J. (1991) The Relationship between Caries Experience in the Deciduous Molars at 5 Years and in First Permanent Molars of the Same Child at 7 Years. Community Dental Health, 8, 3-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2049653

[14]   Caste, L.M., Selwitz, R.H., Oldakowski, R.J., Brunelle, J.A., Winn, D.M. and Brrown, L.J. (1996) Coronal Caries in the Primary and Permanent Dentition of Children and Adolescents 1-17 Years of Age: United States, 1988-1991. Journal of Dental Research, 75, 631-641.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8594087

[15]   Hunt, D.E., King, T.J. and Fuller, G.E. (1978) Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated from Oral Infections. Journal of Oral Surgery, 36, 527-529.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/277637

[16]   Heimdahl, A., Von Konow, L., Satoh, T. and Nord, C.E. (1985) Clinical Appearance Orofacial Infections of Odontogenic Origin in Relation of Microbiological Findings. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 22, 299-302.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC268380/

[17]   Batty, I. (1958) Actinomyces odontolyticus, a New Species of Actinomycete Regularly Isolated from Deep Carious Dentine. The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, 75, 455-459.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.1700750225
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/path.1700750225/abstract


[18]   Dodson, T.B., Peroth, D.H. and Kaban, L.B. (1989) Pedriatic Maxillofacial Infections: A Retrospective Study of 113 Patients. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 47, 327-330.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2926541

[19]   Sunde, P.T., Olsen, I., Lind, P.O. and Tronstad, L. (2000) Extraradicular Infection: A Methodological Study. Dental Traumatology, 16, 84-90.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11202862
http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-9657.2000.016002084.x


[20]   Sunde, P.T., Tronstad, L., Eribe, E.R., Lind, P.O. and Olsen, I. (2000) Assessment of Periradicular Microbiota by DNA-DNA Hybridization. Dental Traumatology, 16, 191-196.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11202881
http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-9657.2000.016005191.x


[21]   Gatti, J.J., Dobeck, J.M., Smith, C., White, R.R., Socransky, S.S. and Skobe, Z. (2000) Bacteria of Asymptomatic Periradicular Endodontic Lesions Identified by DNA-DNA Hybridization. Dental Traumatology, 16, 197-204.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11202882
http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-9657.2000.016005197.x


[22]   Graunaite, I., Lodiene, G. and Maciulskiene, V. (2012) Pathogenesis of Apical Periodontitis: A Literature Review. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2, 1011-1023.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24421998

[23]   Ricucci, D. and Siqueira, J.F. (2010) Biofilms and Apical Periodontitis: Study of Prevalence and Association with Clinical and Histopathologic Findings. Journal of Endodontics, 36, 1277-1288.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20647081

[24]   Pazelli, L.C., Freitas, A.C., Ito, I.Y., Souza-Gugelmin, M.C.M., Medeiros, A.S. and Nelson-Filho, P. (2003) Prevalence of Microorganisms in Root Canals of Human Deciduous Teeth with Necrotic Pulp and Chronic Periapical Lesions. Pesquisa Odontológica Brasileira, 17, 367-371.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-74912003000400013
https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&rlz=1C1CHMO_enXK560XK560&ion=
1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=prevalence%20of%20microorganisms%20in%20root%20canals
20of%20human%20deciduous%20teeth%20with%20necrotic%20pulp%20and%20chronic%20
periapical%20lesions


[25]   Sakaguchi, M., Sato, S., Ishigama, T., Katsuno, S. and Taguchi, K. (1997) Characteristics and Management of Deep Neck Infections. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 26, 131-134.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050086/
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0901-5027(05)80835-5


[26]   Oguntebi, B., Slee, A.M., Tanzer, J.M. and Langeland, K. (1982) Predominant Microflora Associated with Human Dental Periapical Abscesses. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 15, 964-966.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC272224/

[27]   Hegde, A.M. and Lakshmi, P.K. (2013) Prevalence of Selected Microorganisms in the Pulp Space of Human Deciduous Teeth with Irreversible Pulpitis. Journal of Endodontology, 25, 107-111.
http://medind.nic.in/eaa/t13/i1/eaat13i1p107.pdf

[28]   Brook, I., Grimm, S. and Kielich, R.B. (1981) Bacteriology of Acute Periapical Abscess in Children. Journal of Endodontology, 7, 378-380.
http://www.jendodon.com/article/S0099-2399%2881%2980060-X/abstract

[29]   Marsh, S.J. and Largent, M.D. (1967) A Bacteriological Study of the Pulp Canals of Infected Primary Molars. Journal of Dentistry for Children, 34, 460-470.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4864179

[30]   da Silva, L.A.B., Leonardo, M.R., de Oliveira, D.S.B., da Silva, R.A.B., de Queiroz, A.M., Hernández, P.G. and Nelson-Filho, P. (2010) Histopathological Evaluation of Root Canal Filling Materials for Primary Teeth. Brazilian Dental Journal, 21.
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-64402010000100006

[31]   Siqueira, J.F. and Rocas, I.N. (2003) Bacteriodes forsythus in Primary Endodontic Infections as Detected by Nested PCR. Journal of Endodontology, 29, 390-393.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12814221
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004770-200306000-00002


[32]   Gill, Y. and Scully, C. (1990) Orofacial Odontogenic Infections: Review of Microbiology and Current Treatment. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, 70, 155-158.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2290641
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-4220(90)90109-6


[33]   Rani, A. and Chopra, A. (2006) Isolation and Identification of Root Canal Bacteria from Symptomatic Nonvital Teeth with Periapical Pathosis. Endodontology, 18, 12-17.
http://medind.nic.in/eaa/t06/i1/eaat06i1p12.pdf

 
 
Top