FNS  Vol.6 No.8 , May 2015
Effect of Spices on Consumer Acceptability of Purple Tea (Camellia sinensis)
Abstract: Spices have been used by consumers worldwide to improve flavours of food including tea. A study was done to determine the effect of selected spices on consumer acceptability of spiced purple tea, their antioxidant properties and economic impact. TRFK 306 (purple tea Variety) was used. Flavored teas were developed by blending the un-aerated purple tea with selected spices including ginger, lemon grass, nutmeg, cinnamon, tea masala (spice mix), and rosemary at different ratios and resulting products brewed and assessed by a sensory panel. Antioxidant activity, catechin analysis and sensory evaluation were done and results showed that all the spices had low antioxidant activities as compared to un-aerated tea from TRFK 306. Cinnamon had an antioxidant capacity of 89.89%, ginger 69.23%, rosemary 89.47%, tea masala 55.79%, nutmeg 46.99% and Purple tea (TRFK 306) 92.53%. Spices had a positive effect on consumer acceptability of purple tea at various threshold ranges. The three best rated spices included cinnamon at 10%, lemongrass at 10% and nutmeg at 25% with mean values of 6.88, 6.24 and 6.92 respectively on a hedonic scale. The results showed that some spices are preferred more with tea than others and some have lower threshold detection values than others. Overall, addition of suitable spices to the purple tea led to an increase acceptability of tea. Economic evaluation of purple tea blended with nutmeg showed a significant increase in cost, from Ksh 56.00, Ksh 58.07 and Ksh 61.17 for 0%, 10% and 25% spice to tea ratio respectively.
Cite this paper: Ochanda, S. , Wanyoko, J. and Ruto, H. (2015) Effect of Spices on Consumer Acceptability of Purple Tea (Camellia sinensis). Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 703-711. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.68073.

[1]   ITC (2010) International Tea Committee-Annual Bulletin of Statistics London.

[2]   Anon (2011) Tea Board of Kenya Statistics. Nairobi.

[3]   Monks, A. (2000) Market Alternatives for Japanese Green Tea: A Report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. RIRDC.

[4]   Ochanda, S.O. (2010) A Review on Tea Manufacture, Tea Types and Tea Products in the Kenyan Tea Industry. Tea Journal, 31, 38-48.

[5]   Snedecor, G.W. and Cochra, W.G. (1967) Book Reviews. In: Walsh, J.A., Ed., Statistical Methods, 6th Edition, The Iowa State University Press.

[6]   Anon (2010) Strategic Plan. Tea Research Foundation of Kenya Strategic Plan, 60.

[7]   Crespy, V. and Williamson, G. (2004) A Review of the Health Effects of Green Tea Catechins in in Vivo Animal Models. Journal of Nutrition, 134, 3431S-3440S.

[8]   Yilmaz, Y. (2006) Novel Uses of Catechins in Foods. Trends in Food Science Technology, 17, 64-71.

[9]   Kaison, C. (2005) Current Situation and Mid-Term Outlook on Tea. International Symposium on Innovation in Tea Science and Sustainable Development in Tea Industry, 11-15 November 2005, Hangzhau, 37-44.

[10]   Lelgo, S.K., Kamunya, S.M., Ochanda, S.O. and Wanyoko, J.K. (2011) The Effect of Processing Technique on Biochemical Composition of Adapted Kenyan and Introduced Japanese and Chinese Tea Germplasm. Tea Journal, 32, 22-23.

[11]   Cho, A.S., Jeon, S.M., Kim, M.J., Yeo, J., Seo, K.I., Choi, M.S. and Lee, M.K. (2010) Chlorogenic Acid Exhibits Anti-Obesity Property and Improves Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet-Induced-Obese Mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48, 937-943.

[12]   Jagetia, G.C., Baliga, M.S., Venkatesh, P. and Ulloor, J.N. (2003) Influence of Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale Rosc) on Survival, Glutathione and Lipid Peroxidation in Mice after Whole-Body Exposure to Gamma Radiation. Radiation Research, 160, 584-592.

[13]   Lai, P.K. and Roy, J. (2004) Antimicrobial and Chemopreventive Properties of Herbs and Spices. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 11, 1451-1460.

[14]   Meilgaard, M., Civille, G. and Carr, B. (1999) Sensory Evaluation Techniques. 3rd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[15]   Moraes, M. (1993) Métodos para Avalia??o sensorial de alimentos. 8th Edition, Unicamp, Campinas.

[16]   IDF (1987) Sensory Evaluation of Dairy Product. ID Federation, FIL-IDF Standard 99A. International Dairy Federation, Bruxelles.

[17]   Ngure, F.M., Wanyoko, J.K., Mahungu, S.M. and Shitandi, A.A. (2009) Catechins Depletion Patterns in Relation to Theaflavin and Thearubigins Formation. Food Chemistry, 115, 8-14.

[18]   Cherotich, L., Kamunya, S.M., Alakonya, A., Msomba, S.W., Uwimana, M.A., Wanyoko, J.K. and Owuor, P.O. (2013) Variation in Catechin Composition of Popularly Cultivated Tea Clones in East Africa (Kenya). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 4, 628-640.

[19]   Koech, K.R., Wachira, F.N., Ngure, R.M., Wanyoko, J.K., Bii, C.C., Karori, S.M. and Kerio, L.C. (2013) Antimicrobial, Synergistic and Antioxidant Activities of Tea Polyphenols. In: Mendez-Vilas, A., Ed., Microbial Pathogens and Strategies for Combating Them, 971-981.

[20]   Ochanda, S.O., Wanyoko, J.K., Kamau, D.M., Kamunya, S.M., Faraj, A.K. and Onyango, C. (2011) The Effect of Selected Spices on Un-Aerated Tea Product from Clone TRFK 303/57. Tea Journal, 32, 88-99.

[21]   Giusti, M.M. and Wrolstad, R.E. (1996) Characterization of Red Radish Anthocyanins. Journal of Food Science, 61, 322-326.

[22]   Karori, S.M., Wachira, F.N., Wanyoko, J.K. and Ngure, R.M. (2007) Antioxidant Capacity of Different Types of Tea Products. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6, 2287-2296.

[23]   Yen, G.C. and Der Duh, P. (1994) Scavenging Effect of Methanolic Extracts of Peanut Hulls on Free-Radical and Active-Oxygen Species. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 42, 629-632.

[24]   Miller, I.J. and Bartoshuk, L.M. (1991) Taste Perception, Taste Bud Distribution, and Spatial Relationships. In: Smell and Taste in Health and Disease, No. 11, 205-233.

[25]   SAS Institute Inc. (2002-2004) SAS 9.1.3 Help and Documentation. SAS Institute Inc., Cary.

[26]   Cass, T. (1980) Statistical Methods in Management: Book 2. Cassell, London.

[27]   Carpenter, R.G. (1960) Principles and Procedures of Statistics, with Special Reference to the Biological Sciences. Eugenics Review, 52, 172-173.

[28]   Baratta, M.T., Dorman, H.J.D., Deans, S.G., Biondi, D.M. and Ruberto, G. (1998) Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidative Activity of Laurel, Sage, Rosemary, Oregano and Coriander Essential Oils. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 10, 618-627.

[29]   Holt, P.R., Katz, S. and Kirshoff, R. (2005) Curcumin Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Pilot Study. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 50, 2191-2193.

[30]   Nielsen, P.V. and Rios, R. (2000) Inhibition of Fungal Growth on Bread by Volatile Components from Spices and Herbs, and the Possible Application in Active Packaging, with Special Emphasis on Mustard Essential Oil. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 60, 219-229.

[31]   Velluti, A., Sanchis, V., Ramos, A.J. and Marín, S. (2004) Effect of Essential Oils of Cinnamon, Clove, Lemon Grass, Oregano and Palmarosa on Growth of and Fumonisin B1 Production by Fusarium verticillioides in Maize. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84, 1141-1146.

[32]   Benkeblia, N. (2004) Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil Extracts of Various Onions (Allium cepa) and Garlic (Allium sativum). LWT-Food Science and Technology, 37, 263-268.

[33]   Bullerman, L.B., Lieu, F.Y. and Seier, S.A. (1977) Inhibition of Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Cinnamon and Clove Oils. Cinnamic Aldehyde and Eugenol. Journal of Food Science, 42, 1107-1109.

[34]   Okubo, S., Toda, M., Hara, Y. and Shimamura, T. (1991) Antifungal and Fungicidal Activities of Tea Extract and Catechin against Trichophyton. Nippon Saikingaku Zasshi, 46, 509-514.

[35]   Arora, D.S. and Kaur, J. (1999) Antimicrobial Activity of Spices. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 12, 257-262.

[36]   Willson, K.C. and Clifford, M.N. (1992) Tea: Cultivation to Consumption. Chapman and Hall, London.

[37]   Yamanishi, T. (1995) Flavor of Tea. Food Reviews International, 11, 477-525.