Back
 OJEE  Vol.4 No.2 , June 2015
Realizing Low Carbon Emission in the University Campus towards Energy Sustainability
Abstract: Energy consumption increases with intensity of human activities. People consume energy for movement and other activities and the more fossil-fuel based energy used, the more carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Since carbon dioxide is the major element of the greenhouse gases (GHG), this phenomenon has a serious implication for global warming and consequent climate change—a scenario that calls for sustainable development. This research considers the emission of CO2 from energy use within the campus of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Two major sources of energy consumption were identified, namely: electricity and transport. The emission for electricity was estimated based on electricity meter reading and the conversion rate in accordance with the stand-ardized conversion factors for fuel mix of the purchased electric energy as given by PTM (Pusat Tenaga Malaysia), while the associated CO2 emission for transport was estimated based on the number of miles driven (VMT—Vehicle Miles Travel) within the campus, emissions produced per litre of gasoline, and fuel economy of vehicles plying the campus in line with the Code of Federal Regulations USEPA and consistent with the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. It was observed that high CO2 emission resulted from electricity energy consumption, and the highest emission in the transport sector was produced by commuting vehicles while emission from service delivery for cooling, lighting and other equipment was similar to national average.
Cite this paper: Abdul-Azeez, I. and Ho, C. (2015) Realizing Low Carbon Emission in the University Campus towards Energy Sustainability. Open Journal of Energy Efficiency, 4, 15-27. doi: 10.4236/ojee.2015.42002.
References

[1]   Abdalla, K. (2007) Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development: Country Studies on Brazil, Cuba, Lithuania, Mexico, Russian Federation, Slovakia and Thailand, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

[2]   Park, K., et al. (2003) Quantitative Assessment of Environmental Impacts on Life Cycle of Highways. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 129, 25-31. www.ascelibrary.org
http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2003)129:1(25)


[3]   Alshuwaikhat, H.M. and Abubakar, I. (2008) An Integrated Approach to Achieving Campus Sustainability: Assessment of the Current Campus Environmental Management Practices. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16, 1777-1785.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2007.12.002

[4]   Lukman, R. (2009) Towards Greening a University Campus: The Case of the University of Maribor, Slovenia. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 53, 639-644.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.04.014

[5]   Rappaport, A. (2008) Campus Greening: Behind the Headlines. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 50, 6-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/ENVT.50.1.6-17

[6]   Graedel, T.E. (2002) Quantitative Sustainability in a College or University Setting. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 3, 346-358.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14676370210442382

[7]   Bosshard, A. (2000) A Methodology and Terminology of Sustainability Assessment and Its Perspectives for Rural Planning. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 77, 29-41.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(99)00090-0

[8]   Jiusto, J.S. (2003) Spatial Indeterminacy and Power Sector Carbon Emissions Accounting. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Clark University, Worcester.

[9]   Pope, J., Annandale, D. and Morrison-Saunders, A. (2004) Conceptualising Sustainability Assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 24, 595-616.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2004.03.001

[10]   Hardy, D. (2008) Cities That Don’t Cost the Earth Published by Jon Land for TCPA in Housing and Also in Communities, Local Government.

[11]   Arrow, K.J. (2007) Global Climate Change: A Challenge to Policy. The Berkeley Electronic Press, Berkeley. www.bepress.com/ev

[12]   Abdul-Azeez, I.A. (2012) The Development and Application of Malaysian University Carbon Emission Tool (MUCET) towards Creating Sustainable Campus. Ph.D. Thesis, UTM, Johor.

[13]   Eagan, D.J., et al. (2008) Higher Education in a Warming World. The Business Case for Climate Leadership on Campus National Wildlife Federation’s Campus Ecology. www.nwf.org/CampusEcology/BusinessCase

[14]   Lourdel, N., Gondran, N., Laforest, V. and Brodhag, C. (2005) Introduction of Sustainable Development in Engineer’s Curricula Problematic and Evaluation Methods. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 6, 254-264.

[15]   Balsas, C.J.L. (2003) Sustainable Transportation Planning on College Campuses. Transport Policy, 10, 35-49.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0967-070X(02)00028-8

[16]   Toor, W. and Havlick, S. (2004) Transportation and Sustainable Campus Communities: Issues, Examples, Solutions. Island Press, Washington DC.

[17]   Dorsey, B. (2005) Mass Transit Trends and the Role of Unlimited Access in Transportation Demand Management. Journal of Transport Geography, 13, 235-246.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2004.07.004

[18]   Mason, I.G., Brooking, A.K., Oberender, A., Harford, J.M. and Horsley, P.G. (2003) Implementation of a Zero Waste Program at a University Campus. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 38, 257-269.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-3449(02)00147-7

[19]   Wong, N.H. and Jusuf, S.K. (2008) GIS-Based Greenery Evaluation on Campus Master Plan. Landscape and Urban Planning, 84, 166-182.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.07.005

[20]   Nilsson, J., Bjuggren, C. and Frostell, B. (1998) Greening of a Campus Restaurant at Stockholm University: Sustainable Development Audits by Means of the SDR Methodology. Journal of Environmental Management, 52, 307-315.

[21]   Arendt, R. (2004) Linked Landscapes Creating Greenway Corridors through Conservation Subdivision Design Strategies in the Northeastern and Central United States. Landscape and Urban Planning, 68, 241-269.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(03)00157-9

[22]   Riddell, W., Bhatia, K.K., Parisi, M., Foote, J. and Imperatore, J. (2009) Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 10, 266-278.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14676370910972576

[23]   International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2007) Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development: Country Studies on Brazil, Cuba, Lithuania, Mexico, Russian Federation, Slovakia and Thailand. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York.

[24]   Spirovski, D., Abazi, A., Iljazi, I., Ismaili, M., Cassulo, G. and Venturin, A. (2012) Realization of a Low Emission University Campus through the Implementation of Climate Action Plan. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 4, 4695-4702.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.321

[25]   Beatty, B., et al. (2002) Building Environmental Sustainability at Bowling Green State University (Executive Summary).
http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/envh/ES-summary.pdf

[26]   Isham, J.T., et al. (2003) Carbon Neutrality at Middlebury College: A Compilation of Potential Objectives and Strategies to Minimize Campus Climate Impact. Draft Prepared for the Carbon Reduction Initiative at Middlebury College.

[27]   Stewart, C. (2005) Ecological Footprint Progress Report. University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga.
http://geog.utm.utoronto.ca/ecofootprint/doc/efprogressreport2005.pdf

[28]   Elderkin, R. (2007) A First Step toward a Climate Neutral Pomona College: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory and Recommendations for Mitigating Emissions. Pomona Campus Climate Challenge, 27 April 2007.

[29]   McNeilly, L. (2008) UC Berkeley Campus Sustainability. University of California, Berkeley.

[30]   Willson, R. and Brown, K. (2008) Carbon Neutrality at the Local Level: Achievable Goal or Fantasy? Journal of the American Planning Association, 74, 497-504.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944360802380431

[31]   Filippin, C. (2000) Benchmarking the Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Emission of School Buildings in Argentina. Building and Environment, 35, 407-414.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1323(99)00035-9

[32]   Chan Seong Aun, A. (2004) Energy Efficiency: Designing Low Energy Buildings Using Energy 10. Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia (PAM), CPD Seminar, 7th August 2004.

[33]   Sathiendrakumar, R. (2003) Greenhouse Emission Reduction and Sustainable Development. International Journal of Social Economics, 30, 1233-1248.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03068290310500643

[34]   United State Environmental Protection Agency (2006) Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the US Transportation Sector, 1990-2003. USEPA, Washington DC. www.epa.gov/otaq/climate.htm

[35]   WED, IEA/ESD, Energy Statistics Division (ESD) of the International Energy Agency (IEA) (2011) IEA Energy Statistics. www.iea.org/statist/index.htm

[36]   Greenpeace International, Implementation of All the Elements of Decision 1/CP.17, (b) Matters Related to Paragraphs 7 and 8 (ADP), 2013.

 
 
Top