OJF  Vol.5 No.5 , July 2015
Selection Strategy for Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Families Originating from Contrasting European Populations
Abstract: Genetic material originating from contrasting European chestnut (Castanea sativa) populations of Greece, Italy and Spain was evaluated in a common garden test situated in Greece. The aim of the study is to device an appropriate selection strategy by identifying and conserving superior genotypes for current and future use in breeding programs. Breeding material consisted of 143 open-pollinated families growing in a common garden provenance-progeny experimental trial. Growth trait genetic parameters were estimated and response to selection was evaluated using family, within family and combined selection methods. Two models were employed for the estimation of family variance and genetic parameters. The CVA varied between 12.1% and 67% among traits and models, showing an increasing trend with age. Heritability estimates were high; however their variation with age was irregular. Selection of superior families regarding three years of measurement for height, diameter, volume index and number of leaves showed a potential gain of 12% - 25%, 12% - 28%, 33% - 73% and 21% - 49% over the mean of all plants. Genetic gain for volume index was the highest among the traits studied and the joint model used presented a more effective selection strategy. Results indicate that the experimental trial studied presented substantial genetic variation and sufficient genetic gain opportunities for quantitative traits of economic importance. These findings suggest that inferior trees can be rogued from the experimental trial and a seedling seed orchard of Castanea sativa in Greece can be established.
Cite this paper: Tchatchoua, D. , Aravanopoulos, F. (2015) Selection Strategy for Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Families Originating from Contrasting European Populations. Open Journal of Forestry, 5, 489-499. doi: 10.4236/ojf.2015.55042.

[1]   Aravanopoulos, F. A., Drouzas, A. D., & Alizoti, P. G. (2001). Electrophoretic and Quantitative Variation in Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in Hellenic Populations in Old-Growth Natural and Coppice Stands. Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, 76, 429-434.

[2]   Armstrong, L. (1999). Provenance Variation in Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth). M.Sc. Thesis, Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.

[3]   Baliuckas, V., & Pliura, A. (2003). Genetic Variation and Phenotypic Plasticity of Quercus robur Populations and Open-Pollinated Families in Lithuania. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 18, 305-319.

[4]   Baliuckas, V., Ekberg, I., Eriksson, G., & Norell, L. (1999). Genetic Variation among and within Population of Four Swedish Hardwoods Species Assessed in a Nursery Trial. Silvae Genetica, 48, 17-25.

[5]   Baliuckas, V., Largestrom, T., & Eriksson, G. (2000). Within and among Population Variation in Juvenile Growth Rhythm and Growth in Fraxinus excelsior and Prunus avium. Forest Genetics, 7, 193-202.

[6]   Beineke, W. F. (1983). The Genetic Improvement of Black Walnut for Timber Production. In J. Janick (Ed.), Plant Breeding Reviews, AVI Publ., USA 1, 236-266.

[7]   Bradshaw, H. D., & Settler, R. (1995). Molecular Genetics of Growth and Development of Populus IV. Mapping OTLs with Large Effects on Growth, Form and Phenology Traits in a Forest Tree. Genetics, 139, 963-973.

[8]   Cundall, E. P., Cahalan, C. M., & Connolly, T. (2003). Early Results of Ash (Fraxinus excelsior. L) Provenance Trials at Sites in England and Wales. Forestry, 76, 385-400.

[9]   Falconer, D. S. (1989). Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. New York: Longmann, 428.

[10]   Falconer, D. S., & Mackay, T. F. C. (1996). Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. New York: Longman, 464.

[11]   Fernandez-Lopez, J., Aravanopoulos, F. A., Botta, R., Villani, F., Alizoti, P. A., Cherubini, M., Diaz, R, Mellano, G., Zas, R., & Eriksson, G. (2005). Geographic Variability among Extreme European Wild Chestnut Populations. Acta Horticulturae, 693, 403-411.

[12]   Illingworth, K. (1978) Study of Lodgepole Pine Genotype-Environment Interaction in BC. In: Proceedings International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO) Joint Meeting of Working Parties: Douglas-fir provenances, Lodgepole Pine Provenances, Sitkas Spruce Provenances and Abies Provenances (pp. 151-158). Vancouver.

[13]   Jensen, J. S. (2000). Provenance Variation in Phenotypic Traits in Quercus robur and Quercus petraea in Danish Provenance Trails. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 15, 297-308.

[14]   Johnson, G. R., Snierzko, R. A., & Mandel, N. I. (1997). Age Trends in Douglas-Fir Genetic Parameters and Implication for Optimum Selection age. Silvae Genetica, 46, 349-358.

[15]   King, J. N., Yeh, F. C., & Heaman, J. G. H. (1988). Selection of Growth and Yield Traits in Controlled Crosses of Coastal Douglas-Fir. Silvae Genetica, 37, 158-164.

[16]   Kleinschmit, J. (1993). Intraspecific Variation of Growth and Adaptive Traits in European Oak Species. Annals of Forest Science, 50, 166s-185s.

[17]   Kleinschmit, J., & Svolba, J. (1979). Possibilities of Genetic Improvement of Quercus robur and Q. petraea. III. Progeny Testing of Selected Seed Trees. Allgemeine Forst Jagdezeitung, 150, 111-120.

[18]   Lambeth, C. C. (1980). Juvenile-Mature Correlations in Pinaceae and Implications for Early Selection. Forest Science, 26, 571-580.

[19]   Lauteri, M., Pliura, A., Monteverdi, M. C., Brugnoli, E., Villani, F., & Eriksson, G. (2004). Genetic Variation in Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Six European Populations of Castanea sativa Mill., Originating from Contrasting Localities. Journal of Evolutional Biology, 17, 1286-1296.

[20]   Magnussen, S., & Yanchuk, A. D. (1994). Selection Age and Risk Finding the Compromise. Silvae Genetica, 49, 25-40.

[21]   Namkoong, G., & Conkle, M. T. (1976). Time Trends in Genetic Control of Height Growth in Ponderosa Pine. Forest Science, 22, 2-12.

[22]   Namkoong, G., Usanis, R. A., & Silen, R. R. (1972). Age-Related Variation in Genetic Control of Height Growth in Douglas-Fir. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 42, 151-159.

[23]   Nebgen, R. J., & Lowe, W. J. (1985). The Efficiency of Early and Indirect Selection in Three Sycamore Genetic Tests. Silvae Genetica, 34, 72-75.

[24]   Owe, M. (2001). Wild Cherry (Prunus avium L.) for Timber Production: Consequences for Early Growth from Selection of Open-Pollinated Single-Tree Progenies in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 16, 117-126.

[25]   Papadima, A., Drouzas A. D., & Aravanopoulos, F. A. (2007). Gene Flow in Natural Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) Seedling and Coppice Population. Proceedings of the 13th Panhellenic Conference of the Hellenic Forest Science Society, Kastoria, 444-452.

[26]   Pliura, A., & Eriksson, G. (2002). Genetic Variation in Juvenile Height and Biomass of Open-Pollinated Families of Six Castanea sativa Mill. Populations in a 2 × 2 Factorial Temperature × Watering Experiment. Silvae Genetica, 51, 152-160.

[27]   Randall, W. K., & Cooper, D. T. (1973). Predicted Genotypic Gains from Cottonwood Clonal Tests. Silvae Genetica, 22, 165-167.

[28]   Rink, G. (1984). Trends in Genetic Control of Juvenile Black Walnut Height Growth. Forest Science, 30, 821-827.

[29]   Savill, P. S., Spennser, R., Robert, J. E., & Hubert, J. D. (1999). Sixth Year Results from Four Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) Breeding Seedling Orchards. Silvae Genetica, 48, 92-100.

[30]   Shelbourne, C. J. A. (1992). Genetic Gain from Different Kinds of Breeding Populations and Seed or Plant Production Population. South African Forestry Journal, 160, 49-65.

[31]   Shutyaeu, A. M. (1999). Population Structure of Oak Forests. Lesovedenie, 4, 3-9.

[32]   Shutz, J. P., & Badoux, E. (1979). Yield of Young Oak Stands in Relation to Site Conditions. Mitteilungen Eidgenossische Anstault Forstliche Versuchsweson, 55, 1-177.

[33]   Skroppa, T. (1982). A Critical Evaluation of Methods Available to Estimate the Genotype × Environment Interaction. Studies Forestry Suecia, 166, 3-14.

[34]   Skroppa, T. (1994). Growth Rhythm and Hardiness of Picea abies Progenies of High Altitude Parents from Seed Produced at Low Elevations. Silvae Genetica, 43, 95-100.

[35]   Sokal, R. R., & Rohlf, F. J. (1981). Biometry (p. 859). New York: W.H. Freeman and Co.

[36]   St. Clair, J. B. (1994). Genetic Variation in Tree Structure and Its Relation to Size in Douglas-Fir. 1. Biomass Partitioning, Foliage Efficiency, Stem Form and Wood Density. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24, 1226-1235.

[37]   Tchatchoua, D. T., & Aravanopoulos, F. A. (2010). Evaluation of Selected European Chestnut (Castanea sativa) Provenances II: Intra-Provenance Family Variation. Acta Horticulturae, 866, 215-224.

[38]   Tchatchoua, D. T., Barbas, E., & Aravanopoulos, F. A. (2014). Micropropagation of Elite Genotypes of Castatea sativa (Mill.). Journal of Advances in Biotechnology, 3, 200-209.

[39]   Worrell, R., Cundell, E. P., Malcolm, D. C., & Ennos, R. A. (2000). Variation among Seed Sources of Silver Birch in Scotland. Forestry, 73, 419-435.

[40]   Xie, C. Y., Ying, C. C. (1996). Heritabilities, Age-Age Correlations, and Early Selection in Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta spp. Latifolia). Silvae Genetica, 45, 101-110.

[41]   Ying, C. C., Illingworth, K., & Calson, M. (1986). Geographic Variation in Lodgepole Pine and Its Implications for Tree Improvement in British Columbia. In: D. M. Baumcartner et al. (Eds.), Lodgepole Pine: The Species and its Management (pp. 45-53). Pullman: Cooperative Extension Service, Washington State University.

[42]   Zas, R., Merlo, E., Diaz, R., & Fernandez-Lopez, J. (2004). Relative Growth Trend as an Early Selection Parameter in a Douglas-Fir Provenance Test. Forest Science, 50, 518-526.

[43]   Zobel, B. J., & Talbert, J. T. (1984). Applied Forest Tree Improvement (p. 528). New York: Wiley.