FNS  Vol.6 No.7 , May 2015
Chemical Composition, Phenolics, Anthocyanins Concentration and Antioxidant Activity of Ten Wild Edible Plants
Abstract: Plants were collected and prepared for chemical analysis, total phenolics, anthocyanins concentrations, and free radical scavenging activity. Results showed that, protein concentration of Malva parviflora (22.9%) was the highest among the plants. Ruta chalepensis had high levels of fat and carbohydrates (4.2% and 51.7%, respectively), but had the lowest level of ash (8.7%). Mineral concentrations varied and found to have appreciable amounts of Ca, Na, K, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn and P. Total phenolic ranged from 163.1 (Tetragonolobus palaestinus) to 1328.8 mg GAE/100g (Ruta chalepensis). Anthocyanins ranged between 18.1 (Gundelia tournefortii) and 100.1 mg/100g (Rumex acetosella). These plants differed in free radical scavenging activity. It was concluded that these plants could be considered as natural sources for antioxidants and valuable natural resources as a new addition to the diet of inhabitants.
Cite this paper: Ereifej, K. , Feng, H. , Rababah, T. , Almajwal, A. , Alu’datt, M. , Gammoh, S. and Oweis, L. (2015) Chemical Composition, Phenolics, Anthocyanins Concentration and Antioxidant Activity of Ten Wild Edible Plants. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 581-590. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.67061.

[1]   Shahidi, F. and Naczk, M. (2004) Phenolics in Food and Nutrraceuticals. CRC Press LLC, New York.

[2]   Gordon, M. (2001) The Development of Oxidative Rancidity in Foods. In: Pokorny, J., Yanishlieva, N. and Gordon, M., Eds., Antioxidants in Food, CRC Press LLC, Boston, 17 p.

[3]   Bandoniene, D., Venskutonis, P., Gruzdiene, D. and Murkovic, M. (2002) Antioxidative Activity of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) and Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Extracts in Rapeseed Oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 104, 286-292.<286::AID-EJLT286>3.0.CO;2-O

[4]   Maisuthisakul, P., Suttajit, M. and Pongsawatmanit, R. (2007) Assessment of Phenolic Content and Free Radical-Sca-venging Capacity of Some Thai Indigenous Plants. Food Chemistry, 100, 1409-1418.

[5]   Rababah, T., Hettiarachchy, N. and Horax, R. (2004) Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Activities of Fenugreek, Green Tea, Black Tea, Grape Seed, Ginger, Rosemary, Gotu Kola, and Ginkgo Extracts, Vitamin E, and Tert-Butelhydro-quinone. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52, 5183-5186.

[6]   Wettasinghe, M. and Shahidi, F. (1999) Antioxidant and Free Radical-Scavenging Properties of Ethanolic Extracts of Defatted Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Seeds. Food Chemistry, 67, 399-414.

[7]   Lee, S., Umano, K., Shibamoto, T. and Lee, K. (2005) Identification of Volatile Components in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and Thyme Leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) and Their Antioxidant Properties. Food Chemistry, 91, 131-137.

[8]   Turan, M., Kordali, S., Zengin, H., Dursun, A. and Sezen, Y. (2003) Macro and Micro Mineral Content of Some Wild Edible Leaves Consumed in Eastern Anatolia. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 53, 129-137.

[9]   Ereifej, K. (2004) Seed Characteristics of Wild Legume (Tetragonolobus palaestinus) as Compared with Lens culinaris and Pisum sativum. International Journal of Food Properties, 7, 639-646.

[10]   Al-Eisawi, D.M. (1998) Field Guide to Wild Flowers of Jordan and Neighboring Countries. The National Library. Amman, Jordan.

[11]   AOAC (1984) Official Methods of Analysis. 14th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.

[12]   Fiske, C.H. and Subbarow, Y. (1925) The Colorimetric Determination of Phosphorus. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 66, 375-400.

[13]   Perva-Uzunalic, A., Skerget, M., Knez, Z., Weinreich, B., Otto, F. and Grüner, S. (2007) Extraction of Active Ingredients from Green Tea (Camellia sinensis): Extraction Efficiency of Major Catechins and Caffeine. Food Chemistry, 96, 597-605.

[14]   Singleton, V.L. and Rossi, J.A. (1965) Colorimetry of Total Phenolics with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagents. American Journal Ecology Viticulture, 16, 144-158.

[15]   Rabino, I. and Mancinelli, A. (1986) Light, Temperature, and Anthocyanin Production. Plant Physiology, 81, 922-924.

[16]   Mättaus, B. (2002) Antioxidant Activity of Extracts Obtained from Residues of Different Oilseeds. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 50, 3444-3452.

[17]   Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. and Berset, C. (1996) Use of Free Radical Method to Evaluate Antioxidant Activity. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie, 28, 25-30.

[18]   SAS (2002) User’s Guide. Release 8.2 Edition, SAS Institute Inc., Cary.

[19]   Kamalak, A., Canbolat, O., Gurbuz, Y., Erol, A. and Ozay, O. (2005) Effect of Maturity Stage on Chemical Composition, in Vitro and in Situ Dry Matter Degradation of Tumbleweed Hay (Gundelia tournefortii L.). Small Ruminant Research, 58, 149-156.

[20]   Karabulut, A., Ozkan, C., Kamalak, A. and Canbolat, O. (2006) Comparison of the Nutritive Value of a Native Turkish Forages, Tumbleweed Hay (Gundelia tournefortii L.), Wheat Straw and Alfalfa Hay Using in Situ and in Vitro Measurements with Sheep. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producciń Animal, 14, 78-83.

[21]   Buxton, D.R. (1996) Quality Related Characteristics of Forages as Influenced by Plant Environment and Agronomics Factors. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 59, 37-49.

[22]   Kumari, M., Gupta, S., Lakshmi, A. and Prakash, J. (2004) Iron Bioavailability in Green Leafy Vegetables Cooked in Different Utensils. Food Chemistry, 86, 217-222.

[23]   Özcan, M. (2004) Mineral Contents of Some Plants Used as Condiments in Turkey. Food Chemistry, 84, 437-440.

[24]   Kanatt, S., Chander, R. and Sharma, A. (2007) Antioxidant Potential of Mint (Mentha spicata L.) in Radiation-Processed Lamb Meat. Food Chemistry, 100, 451-458.

[25]   Surveswaran, S., Cai, Y., Corke, H. and Sun, M. (2007) Systematic Evaluation of Natural Phenolic Antioxidants from 133 Indian Medicinal Plants. Food Chemistry, 102, 938-953.

[26]   Su, L., Yin, J., Charles, D., Zhou, K., Moore, J. and Yu, L. (2007) Total Phenolic Contents, Chelating Capacities, and Radical-Scavenging Properties of Black Peppercorn, Nutmeg, Rosehip, Cinnamon and Oregano Leaf. Food Chemistry, 100, 990-997.

[27]   Lin, J. and Tang, C. (2007) Determination of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents in Selected Fruits and Vegetables, as Well as Their Stimulatory Effects on Mouse Splenocyte Proliferation. Food Chemistry, 101, 140-147.

[28]   Rababah, T., Ereifej, K. and Howard, L. (2005) Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Dehydration on Concentrations of Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Capacity, Anthocyanins, and Color in Fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 4444-4447.

[29]   Longo, L., Scardino, A. and Vasapollo, G. (2007) Identification and Quantification of Anthocyanins in the Berries of Pistacia lentiscus L., Phillyrea latifolia L. and Rubia peregrina L. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 8, 360-364.

[30]   Ersus, S. and Yurdagel, U. (2007) Microencapsulation of Anthocyanin Pigments of Black Carrot (Daucus carota L.) by Spray Drier. Journal of Food Engineering, 80, 805-812.

[31]   Dasgupta, N. and De, B. (2007) Antioxidant Activity of Some Leafy Vegetables of India: A Comparative Study. Food Chemistry, 101, 471-474.

[32]   Noda, Y., Kaneyuki, T., Igarashi, K., Mori, A. and Packer, L. (2000) Antioxidant Activity of Nasunin, an Anthocyanin in Eggplant Peels. Toxicology, 148, 119-123.

[33]   Connor, A.M., Luby, J.J., Tong, C.B.S., Finn, C.E. and Hancock, J.F. (2002) Genotypic and Environmental Variation in Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolics Content, and Anthocyanin Content among Blueberry Cultivars. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 127, 89-97.

[34]   Hanson, P.M., Yang, R.Y., Wu, J., Chen, J.T., Ledesma, D., Tsou, S.C.S. and Lee, T.C. (2004) Variation for Antioxidant Activity and Antioxidants in Tomato. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 129, 704-711.

[35]   Ivanova, D., Gerova, D., Chervenkov, T. and Yankova, T. (2005) Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Bulgarian Medicinal Plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 96, 145-150.

[36]   Balasundram, N., Sundram, K. and Samman, S. (2006) Phenolic Compounds in Plants and Agri-Industrial By-Products: Antioxidant Activity, Occurrence, and Potential Uses. Food Chemistry, 99, 191-203.