First Time Demonstration of the Quantum Interference Effect during Integration of Cognition and Emotion in Children

Affiliation(s)

^{1}
School of Advanced International Studies on Applied Theoretical and Non Linear Methodologies of Physics, Bari, Italy.

^{2}
Department of Basic Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.

^{3}
University Hospital Centre of Vaud, Department of Psychiatry, Vaud, Switzerland.

^{4}
Centre for Philosophy of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.

ABSTRACT

Quantum cognition is a scientific approach to cognitive phenomena which makes use of the mathematical formalism of quantum theory. Quantum interference effect constitutes one of this theory’s main tenets and has been repeatedly demonstrated experimentally, in the last decade, in adult subjects. In the present paper, we aim to demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of thequantum interference effect on children during an experiment involving an integration of cognition and emotion. Our positive results consolidate the presuppositions of quantum cognition, enlarging its field of application to children’s mental apparatus and evidence the important question to consider the quantum model in the current investigated question of the interaction of cognition and emotion in children at neurological and psychological levels.

Quantum cognition is a scientific approach to cognitive phenomena which makes use of the mathematical formalism of quantum theory. Quantum interference effect constitutes one of this theory’s main tenets and has been repeatedly demonstrated experimentally, in the last decade, in adult subjects. In the present paper, we aim to demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of thequantum interference effect on children during an experiment involving an integration of cognition and emotion. Our positive results consolidate the presuppositions of quantum cognition, enlarging its field of application to children’s mental apparatus and evidence the important question to consider the quantum model in the current investigated question of the interaction of cognition and emotion in children at neurological and psychological levels.

KEYWORDS

Quantum Cognition, Quantum Interference Effect, Quantum Mechanics, Emotion-Cognition Interaction in Children

Quantum Cognition, Quantum Interference Effect, Quantum Mechanics, Emotion-Cognition Interaction in Children

Cite this paper

Conte, E. , Lucas, R. , (2015) First Time Demonstration of the Quantum Interference Effect during Integration of Cognition and Emotion in Children.*World Journal of Neuroscience*, **5**, 91-98. doi: 10.4236/wjns.2015.52011.

Conte, E. , Lucas, R. , (2015) First Time Demonstration of the Quantum Interference Effect during Integration of Cognition and Emotion in Children.

References

[1] Conte, E. (2011) Advances in Application of Quantum Mechanics in Neuroscience and Psychology: A Clifford Algebraic Approach. Nova Science Publishers, New York.

[2] Khrennikov, A. (2010) Ubiquitous Quantum Structure: From Psychology to Finances. Springer, Berlin.

[3] Aerts, D. (1991) A Mechanistic Classical Laboratory Situation Violating the Bell Inequalities with 2?√2, Exactly “in the Same Way” as Its Violations by the EPR Experiments. Helvetica Physica Acta, 64, 1-23.

[4] Busemeyer, J.R. and Bruza, P.D. (2012) Quantum Models of Cognition and Decisions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511997716

[5] Snyder, M.D. (1995) On the Quantum Mechanical Wave Function as a Link between Cognition and the Physical World: A Role for Psychology. http://cogprints.org/2196/

[6] Bordley, R.F. (1983) Modeling Quantum Behavior with Standard (Nonquantum) Probability Theory. Journal of Mathematical Physics, 24, 2411-2421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.525622

[7] Bordley, R.F. (1997) Experiment-Dependent Probabilities in Quantum-Mechanics and Psychology. Physics Essays, 10, 401-406.

[8] Conte, E., Todarello, O., Federici, A., Vitiello, F., Lopane, M., Khrennikov, A.Y. and Zbilut, J.P. (2007) Some Remarks on an Experiment Suggesting Quantum-Like Behavior of Cognitive Entities and Formulation of an Abstract Quantum Mechanical Formalism to Describe Cognitive Entity and Its Dynamics. Chaos, Solitions and Fractals, 31, 1076-1088.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2005.09.061

[9] Conte, E., Khrennikov, A.Y., Todarello, O., Federici, A., Mendolicchio, L. and Zbilut, J.P. (2009) Mental States Follow Quantum Mechanics during Perception and Cognition of Ambiguous Figures. Journal of Open Systems and Information Dynamics, 16, 1-17.

[10] Conte, E., Santacroce, N., Laterza, V., Conte, S., Federici, A. and Todarello, O. (2012) The Brain Knows More than It Admits: A Quantum Model and Its Experimental Confirmation. Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics, 9, 72-110.

[11] Conte, E., Khrennikov, A.Y., Todarello, O., De Robertis, R., Federici, A. and Zbilut, J.P. (2011) On the Possibility That We Think in a Quantum Mechanical Manner: An Experimental Verification of Existing Quantum Interference Effects in Cognitive Anomaly of Conjunction Fallacy. Chaos and Complexity Letters, 4, 123-136.

[12] Conte, E. (2011) On the Logical Origins of Quantum Mechanics Demonstrated by Using Clifford Algebra: A Proof That Quantum Interference Arises in a Clifford Algebraic Formulation of Quantum Mechanics. Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics, 8, 109-126.

[13] Conte, E. (2011) On the Logical Origins of Quantum Mechanics Demonstrated by Using Clifford Algebra. NeuroQuantology, 9, 231-242. http://dx.doi.org/10.14704/nq.2011.9.2.397

[14] Conte, E. (2014) Can Current Quantum Cognition Studies Give Indication on the Manner in Which Human Cognition Arose Ab Initio? Psychology, 5, 798-800.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2014.58090

[15] Conte, E. (2013) Are Information, Cognition, and the Principle of Existence Intrinsically Structured in the Quantum Model of Reality? Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics, 7, 797-818.

[16] Conte, E. (2013) A Clifford Algebraic Analysis Gives Mathematical Explanation of Quantization of Quantum Theory and Delineates a Model of Quantum Reality in Which Information, Primitive Cognition Entities and a Principle of Existence Are Intrinsically Represented Ab Initio. World Journal of Neuroscience, 3, 157-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2013.33021

[17] Conte, E. (2014) Answer to Giancarlo Ghirardi: Quantum Superpositions and Definite Perceptions: Envisaging New Feasible Experimental Tests. A Novel Proposal for Quantum Mechanics, Perception and Cognitive Science? International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 54, 672-679.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10773-014-2259-6

[18] Conte, E. (2015) Additional Comments Added to Our Recent Answer to G. Ghirardi. Journal of Modern Physics, 6, 12-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2015.61002

[19] Conte E. (2015) What Path Monitor: A Brief Note on Quantum Cognition and Quantum Interference, the Role of the Knowledge Factor. Psychology, 6, 291-296.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2015.63029

[20] Orlov, Y. (1996) Peculiarities of Quantum Mechanics: Origins and Meaning.

http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/9607017

[21] Conte, E., Altamura, M., De Salvia, M., Federici, A., Bellomo, A. and Zbilut, J.P. (2011) On a New Form of Chaos Based on Deterministic Chaos plus Added Quantum Mechanical Components: The Perspectives of Application in Cognitive Process in Psychology. Chaos and Complexity Letters, 5, 27-59.

[22] Margenau, H. (1984) The Miracle of Existence. Ox Bow Press, Woodbridge.

[23] Eccles, J.C. (1990) A Unitary Hypothesis of Mind-Brain Interaction in the Cerebral Cortex. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 240, 433-451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1990.0047

[24] Eccles, J.C. (1994) How the Self Controls Its Brain. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg and New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-49224-2

[25] Wolf, F.A. (1989) On the Quantum Physical Theory of Subjective Antedating. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 136, 13-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5193(89)80185-7

[26] Beck, F. and Eccles, J.C. (1994) Quantum Processes in the Brain: A Scientific Basis of Consciousness. Cognitive Studies, 5, 95-109.

[27] Walker, E.H. (1977) Quantum Mechanical Tunneling in Synaptic and Ephaptic Transmission. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, 11, 103-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qua.560110109

[28] Conte, E. (2010) On the Possibility That We Think in a Quantum Probabilistic Manner. NeuroQuantology, 8, 3-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.14704/nq.2010.8.4.349

[29] Busemeyer, J.R. and Wang, Z. (2007) Quantum Information Processing Explanation for Interactions between Inferences and Decisions. Proceedings of the AAAI Symposium on Quantum Interaction, Stanford, 26-28 March 2007, 95-97.

[30] Busemeyer, J.R., Wang, Z. and Lambert-Mogiliansky, A. (2009) Empirical Comparison of Markov and Quantum Models of Decision Making. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 53, 423-433.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmp.2009.03.002

[31] Chalkins, S.D. and Bell, M.A. (2010) Child Development at the Intersection of Emotion and Cognition. http://www.apa.org/pubs/books/4318067.aspx

[1] Conte, E. (2011) Advances in Application of Quantum Mechanics in Neuroscience and Psychology: A Clifford Algebraic Approach. Nova Science Publishers, New York.

[2] Khrennikov, A. (2010) Ubiquitous Quantum Structure: From Psychology to Finances. Springer, Berlin.

[3] Aerts, D. (1991) A Mechanistic Classical Laboratory Situation Violating the Bell Inequalities with 2?√2, Exactly “in the Same Way” as Its Violations by the EPR Experiments. Helvetica Physica Acta, 64, 1-23.

[4] Busemeyer, J.R. and Bruza, P.D. (2012) Quantum Models of Cognition and Decisions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511997716

[5] Snyder, M.D. (1995) On the Quantum Mechanical Wave Function as a Link between Cognition and the Physical World: A Role for Psychology. http://cogprints.org/2196/

[6] Bordley, R.F. (1983) Modeling Quantum Behavior with Standard (Nonquantum) Probability Theory. Journal of Mathematical Physics, 24, 2411-2421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.525622

[7] Bordley, R.F. (1997) Experiment-Dependent Probabilities in Quantum-Mechanics and Psychology. Physics Essays, 10, 401-406.

[8] Conte, E., Todarello, O., Federici, A., Vitiello, F., Lopane, M., Khrennikov, A.Y. and Zbilut, J.P. (2007) Some Remarks on an Experiment Suggesting Quantum-Like Behavior of Cognitive Entities and Formulation of an Abstract Quantum Mechanical Formalism to Describe Cognitive Entity and Its Dynamics. Chaos, Solitions and Fractals, 31, 1076-1088.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2005.09.061

[9] Conte, E., Khrennikov, A.Y., Todarello, O., Federici, A., Mendolicchio, L. and Zbilut, J.P. (2009) Mental States Follow Quantum Mechanics during Perception and Cognition of Ambiguous Figures. Journal of Open Systems and Information Dynamics, 16, 1-17.

[10] Conte, E., Santacroce, N., Laterza, V., Conte, S., Federici, A. and Todarello, O. (2012) The Brain Knows More than It Admits: A Quantum Model and Its Experimental Confirmation. Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics, 9, 72-110.

[11] Conte, E., Khrennikov, A.Y., Todarello, O., De Robertis, R., Federici, A. and Zbilut, J.P. (2011) On the Possibility That We Think in a Quantum Mechanical Manner: An Experimental Verification of Existing Quantum Interference Effects in Cognitive Anomaly of Conjunction Fallacy. Chaos and Complexity Letters, 4, 123-136.

[12] Conte, E. (2011) On the Logical Origins of Quantum Mechanics Demonstrated by Using Clifford Algebra: A Proof That Quantum Interference Arises in a Clifford Algebraic Formulation of Quantum Mechanics. Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics, 8, 109-126.

[13] Conte, E. (2011) On the Logical Origins of Quantum Mechanics Demonstrated by Using Clifford Algebra. NeuroQuantology, 9, 231-242. http://dx.doi.org/10.14704/nq.2011.9.2.397

[14] Conte, E. (2014) Can Current Quantum Cognition Studies Give Indication on the Manner in Which Human Cognition Arose Ab Initio? Psychology, 5, 798-800.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2014.58090

[15] Conte, E. (2013) Are Information, Cognition, and the Principle of Existence Intrinsically Structured in the Quantum Model of Reality? Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics, 7, 797-818.

[16] Conte, E. (2013) A Clifford Algebraic Analysis Gives Mathematical Explanation of Quantization of Quantum Theory and Delineates a Model of Quantum Reality in Which Information, Primitive Cognition Entities and a Principle of Existence Are Intrinsically Represented Ab Initio. World Journal of Neuroscience, 3, 157-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2013.33021

[17] Conte, E. (2014) Answer to Giancarlo Ghirardi: Quantum Superpositions and Definite Perceptions: Envisaging New Feasible Experimental Tests. A Novel Proposal for Quantum Mechanics, Perception and Cognitive Science? International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 54, 672-679.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10773-014-2259-6

[18] Conte, E. (2015) Additional Comments Added to Our Recent Answer to G. Ghirardi. Journal of Modern Physics, 6, 12-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2015.61002

[19] Conte E. (2015) What Path Monitor: A Brief Note on Quantum Cognition and Quantum Interference, the Role of the Knowledge Factor. Psychology, 6, 291-296.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2015.63029

[20] Orlov, Y. (1996) Peculiarities of Quantum Mechanics: Origins and Meaning.

http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/9607017

[21] Conte, E., Altamura, M., De Salvia, M., Federici, A., Bellomo, A. and Zbilut, J.P. (2011) On a New Form of Chaos Based on Deterministic Chaos plus Added Quantum Mechanical Components: The Perspectives of Application in Cognitive Process in Psychology. Chaos and Complexity Letters, 5, 27-59.

[22] Margenau, H. (1984) The Miracle of Existence. Ox Bow Press, Woodbridge.

[23] Eccles, J.C. (1990) A Unitary Hypothesis of Mind-Brain Interaction in the Cerebral Cortex. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 240, 433-451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1990.0047

[24] Eccles, J.C. (1994) How the Self Controls Its Brain. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg and New York. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-49224-2

[25] Wolf, F.A. (1989) On the Quantum Physical Theory of Subjective Antedating. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 136, 13-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5193(89)80185-7

[26] Beck, F. and Eccles, J.C. (1994) Quantum Processes in the Brain: A Scientific Basis of Consciousness. Cognitive Studies, 5, 95-109.

[27] Walker, E.H. (1977) Quantum Mechanical Tunneling in Synaptic and Ephaptic Transmission. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, 11, 103-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qua.560110109

[28] Conte, E. (2010) On the Possibility That We Think in a Quantum Probabilistic Manner. NeuroQuantology, 8, 3-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.14704/nq.2010.8.4.349

[29] Busemeyer, J.R. and Wang, Z. (2007) Quantum Information Processing Explanation for Interactions between Inferences and Decisions. Proceedings of the AAAI Symposium on Quantum Interaction, Stanford, 26-28 March 2007, 95-97.

[30] Busemeyer, J.R., Wang, Z. and Lambert-Mogiliansky, A. (2009) Empirical Comparison of Markov and Quantum Models of Decision Making. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 53, 423-433.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmp.2009.03.002

[31] Chalkins, S.D. and Bell, M.A. (2010) Child Development at the Intersection of Emotion and Cognition. http://www.apa.org/pubs/books/4318067.aspx