ABB  Vol.6 No.4 , April 2015
Isolation and Identification of Specific Pathogens, Presence of Antibiotics, Aflatoxins, Pesticide Residues and Industrial Contaminants in Supply Chain of Milk in Selected Coastal Districts of Andhra Pradesh
ABSTRACT
A research study was undertaken to carry out isolation and identification of specific pathogens, presence of antibiotics, aflatoxins, pesticide residues and industrial contaminants in supply chain of milk in selected coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh. The milk is a whole food; it is categorized under perishable foods as it is biologically nutrient liquid that supports the growth of wide variety of microorganisms and is susceptible to spoilage. The quality of milk can be affected by the presence of additional water, detergents, disinfectants, antibiotics, pesticides and pathogens like bacteria, viruses, toxins released by molds such as aflatoxins and heavy metals etc. The raw milk is usually colonized by pathogens like Campylobacter jejuni, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. The milk samples were collected from vendors of East and West Godavari, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram and Srikakulam districts. The milk samples were found to be positive for Tetracycline and Beta lactam antibiotics. The Aspergillus flavus was identified and the colonies producing aflatoxin M1 appeared in yellow color on the Aspergillus agar (M1127). The pesticides and heavy metals in raw and chilled milk samples were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The pesticide residues were found in raw and chilled milk samples include Lindane, Endosulfan, Chlorane, Heptachlor and Methoxchlor. The heavy metals like lead, arsenic, zinc and mercury residues were found to occur in raw and chilled milk samples. The hygienic quality of the milk in the current study was found to be poor due to exceeding the standard limits in number of specific pathogens, antibiotic, aflatoxin M1, pesticide and heavy metal residues. Immediate measures are needed to be taken to ensure safety of raw milk in public point of view in Visakhapatnam, East & West Godavari regions.

Cite this paper
Kalla, A. , Kutcharlapati, S. , Gannavarapu, S. and Layam, A. (2015) Isolation and Identification of Specific Pathogens, Presence of Antibiotics, Aflatoxins, Pesticide Residues and Industrial Contaminants in Supply Chain of Milk in Selected Coastal Districts of Andhra Pradesh. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 6, 330-344. doi: 10.4236/abb.2015.64032.
References
[1]   Sheehan, W.J. and Phipatanakul, W. (2009) Tolerance to Water Buffalo Milk in a Child with Cow Allergy. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 102, 349.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1081-1206(10)60342-0

[2]   Sahai, D. (1996) Buffalo Milk: Chemistry and Processing Technology. Karnal: Shalini International (SI) Publications, India, 132001.

[3]   Talpur, F.N., Bhanger, M.I., Khooharo A.A. and Zuhra, M.G. (2008) Seasonal Variation in Fatty Acid Composition of Milk from Ruminants Reared under the Traditional Feeding System of Sindh, Pakistan. Livestock Science, 118, 166-172.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2008.04.008

[4]   Kunz, C., Rudloff, S., Baier, W., Klein, N. and Strobel, S. (2000) Oligosaccharides in Human Milk. Structural, Functional and Metabolic Aspects. Annual Review of Nutrition, 20, 699-722.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.20.1.699

[5]   Ahmad, S., Gaucher, I., Rousseau, F., Beaucher, E., Piot, M., Grongnet, J.F. and Gaucheron, F. (2008) Effects of Acidification on Physicochemical Characteristics of Buffalo Milk: A Comparison with Cow’s Milk. Food Chemistry, 106, 11-17.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.04.021

[6]   Ibrahim, E.M., et al. (1983) Seasonal Variation in Fat, Carotene and Vitamin A Contents of Milk from Buffaloes and Cows Herds. Journal of Agricultural Science, 14, 195-206.

[7]   Manob kanti, B. (1996) Dairy Co-Operative and Rural Development. Finance India, X, 406-411.

[8]   FAO (1990) The Technology of Traditional Milk Production in Developing Countries. FAO Animal Production and Health Papers 85, Rome.

[9]   Haridy, M.S.A. (1992) Yeast Flora of Raw Milk in El-Minia City, Egypt. Cryptogamie Mycologie, 13, 321-326.

[10]   Uraz, T. (1988) Çig sütlerin bakteriyolojik niteliklerine göre siniflandirilmasi. Gida, 13, 393-397.

[11]   Roca-Fernández, A.I. (2011) Sustainable Milk Production Systems in Humid Areas Using Farm Resources. Ph.D. Thesis, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela.

[12]   Van Egmond, H.P. (1989) Current Situation on Regulations for Mycotoxins. Overview of Tolerances and Status of Standard Methods of Sampling and Analysis. Food Additives & Contaminants, 6, 139-188.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652038909373773

[13]   Suliman, S.E. and Abdalla, M.A. (2013) Presence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Cattle Milk in Khatorum State-Sudan. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 2, 10-12.

[14]   Ekici, K., Bozkurt, H. and Isleyici, O. (2004) Isolation of Some Pathogens from Raw Milk of Different Milch Animals. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 3, 161-162.

[15]   Gwida, M.M. and EL-Gohary, F.A. (2013) Zoonotic Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Raw Milk with Special Reference to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. 2, 705.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/scientificreports.705

[16]   Saxena, M. and Rai, P. (2013) Microbiological and Chemical Analysis of Raw, Pasteurized and UHT Milk during Preservation in India. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 5, 2804-2809.

[17]   Titouche, Y., Hakem, A., Houali, K., Yabrir, B., Malki, O., Chergui, A., Chenouf, N., Yahiaoui, S., Labiad, M., Ghenim, H., Kechih-Bounar, S., Chirila, F., Nadas, G. and Fit, N. (2013) Detection of Antibiotics Residues in Raw Milk Produced in Freha Area (Tizi-Ouzou), Algeria. Bulletin of the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca Agriculture, 70, 83-87.

[18]   Movassagh, M.H. (2011) Study of Antibiotic Residues in Cow Raw Milk by Copan Milk Test in Parsabad reGion, Ardabil Province, Iran. Annals of Biological Research, 2, 355-359.
www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com

[19]   Forouzan, S., Rahimirad, A., Seyedkhoei, R., Asadzadeh, J. and Bahmani, M. (2014) Determination of Antibiotic Residues in the Pasteurized Milk Produced in West Azerbaijan Province, North West of Iran. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 2, 297-301.

[20]   Veldman, A., Meijs, J.A.C., Borggreve, G.J. and Heeres van der Tol, J.J. (1992) Carry-Over of Aflatoxin from Cows’ Food to Milk. Animal Production, 55, 163-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100037417

[21]   Zain, M.E. (2011) Impact of Mycotoxins on Humans and Animals. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 15, 129-144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2010.06.006

[22]   Shahzadi, N., Imran, M., Sarwar, M., Hashmi, A.S. and Wasim, M. (2013) Identification of Pesticides Residues in Different Samples of Milk. Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies, 19, 167-172.

[23]   Radzymińska, M., Smoczyński, S.S. and Kopec, M. (2008) Persistent Organochlorine Pesticide Lead, Cadmium, Nitrate (V) and Nitrate (III) in Polish Milk and Dairy Products. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 17, 95-100.

[24]   Fagnani, R., Beloti, V., Battaglini, A.P.P., Dunga, K. and Tamanini, R. (2011) Organophosphorus and Carbamates Residues in Milk and Feedstuff Supplied to Dairy Cattle. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 31, 598-602.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-736X2011000700009

[25]   Abdallah, M.I.M. (2003) A New Trial for Preservation of Raw Cow’s Milk at 30°C and 5°C Byactivation of the Natural Lactoperoxidase System. Researcher of Food Inspection Lab., Damietta Sea’ Port, Animal Health Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza.

[26]   Malhat, F., Hagag, M., Saber, A. and Fayz, A.E. (2012) Contamination of Cows Milk by Heavy Metal in Egypt. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 88, 611-613.

[27]   FSSAI (2006) Food Safety Standard Act. Food Safety Standard Authorities of India.

 
 
Top