OJMH  Vol.5 No.2 , April 2015
Groundwater Leakage and River Runoff in a Catchment Influenced by Tectonic Movement
Abstract
In order to clarify how groundwater leakage and river runoff occur in a catchment under tectonic movement, the water balance was estimated in the forested (88.3% in area) Oikamanai River catchment (area, 62.6 km2), Hokkaido, Japan. The catchment’s geology is early Miocene to Pliocene sedimentary bedrock of partly high permeability, accompanied by currently active faults. Daily evapotranspiration, E, in water balance was calculated by applying the one-layer model to meteorological data in the rainfall season of 2011 and 2012, with the topographic influence on heat balance of the catchment considered. The coupling with the short-term water balance method for river runoff events allows us to estimate groundwater leaking to the other catchments through the faults and bedrock. As a result, the leakage corresponded to 50% - 80% of effective rainfall (=P - E: P, rainfall) in 2011, whereas it was lower or negative in 2012. The estimate of leakage then included variability of ca. 80%. In 2012, shallow groundwater storage seems to retain high baseflow during non-rainfall.

Cite this paper
Hossain, M. , Chikita, K. , Sakata, Y. , Miyamoto, T. and Ochiai, Y. (2015) Groundwater Leakage and River Runoff in a Catchment Influenced by Tectonic Movement. Open Journal of Modern Hydrology, 5, 32-44. doi: 10.4236/ojmh.2015.52004.
References

[1]   Michalski, A. and Britton, R. (1997) The Role of Bedding Fractures in the Hydrogeology of Sedimentary Bedrock— Evidence from the Newark Basin, New Jersey. Groundwater, 35, 318-327.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.1997.tb00089.x

[2]   Banks, D. and Robins, N. (2002) An Introduction to Groundwater in Crystalline Bedrock. Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim, 68 p.

[3]   Stamos, C.L., Cox, B.F., Izbicki, J.A. and Mendez, G.O. (2003) Geologic Setting, Geohydrology and Ground-Water Quality near the Helendale Fault in the Mojave River Basin, San Bernardino County, California. USGS Water-Resources Investigations, Sacramento, Report 03-4069, 44 p.

[4]   Seaton, W. and Burbey, T.J. (2005) Influence of Ancient Thrust Faults on the Hydrogeology of the Blue Ridge Province. Groundwater, 43, 301-313.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2005.0026.x

[5]   Wang, X.-S., Ma, M.-G., Li, X., Zhao, J., Dong, P. and Zhou, J. (2010) Groundwater Response to Leakage of Surface Water through a Thick Vadose Zone in the middle Reaches Area of Heihe River Basin, in China. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 14, 639-650.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-14-639-2010

[6]   Modica, E., Buxton, H. T. and Plummer, L. N. (1998) Evaluating the Source and Residence Times of Groundwater Seepage to Streams, New Jersey Coastal Plain. Water Resources Research, 34, 2797-2810.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/98WR02472

[7]   Sakata, Y. and Ikeda, R. (2012) Quantification of Longitudinal River Discharge and Leakage in an Alluvial Fan by Synoptic Survey Using Handheld ADV. Journal of Japan Society of Hydrology and Water Resources, 25, 89-102.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3178/jjshwr.25.89

[8]   Harbaugh, A.W. (2005) MODFLOW-2005, U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model—The Groundwater Flow Process. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A16.

[9]   Brunner, P. and Simmons, C.T. (2012) HydroGeo Sphere: A Fully Integrated, Physically Based Hydrological Model. Groundwater, 50, 170-176.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2011.00882.x

[10]   Dogrul, E.C., Schmid, W., Hanson, R.T., Kadir, T. and Chung, F. (2011) Integrated Water Flow Model and Modflow-Farm Process: A Comparison of Theory, Approaches, and Features of Two Integrated Hydrologic Models. Department of Water Resources, California Natural Resources Agency, State of California, Sacramento, Technical Information Record, 70 p.

[11]   Harter, T. and Morel-Seytoux, H. (2013) Peer Review of the IWFM, MODFLOW and HGS Model Codes: Potential for Water Management Applications in California’s Central Valley and Other Irrigated Groundwater Basins. California Water and Environmental Modeling Forum, Promoting Excellence and Consensus in Water and Environmental Modeling, Sacramento, August 2013, 121 p.

[12]   Hughes, D.A. (2004) Incorporating Groundwater Recharge and Discharge Functions into an Existing Monthly Rainfall-Runoff Model. Hydrological Science Journal, 49, 297-311.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1623/hysj.49.2.297.34834

[13]   Hughes, D.A. (2009) Simulating the Hydrology and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) of Ephemeral Rivers in South Africa for Environmental Water Requirement Determinations. River Research and Applications, 25, 850-860.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rra.1188

[14]   Hughes, D.A., Kapangaziwiri, E. and Baker, K. (2010) Initial Evaluation of a Simple Coupled Surface and Ground Water Hydrological Model to Assess Sustainable Ground Water Abstractions at the Regional Scale. Hydrology Research, 41, 1-12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/nh.2010.038

[15]   Chikita, K.A., Iwasaka, W., Mamun, A.A., Ohmori, K. and Itoh, Y. (2012) The Role of Groundwater Outflow in the Water Cycle of a Coastal Lagoon Sporadically Opening to the Ocean. Journal of Hydrology, 464-465, 423-430.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.07.035

[16]   Chikita, K.A., Uyehara, H., Mamun, A.A., Umgiesser, G., Iwasaka, W., Hossain, M.M. and Sakata, Y. (2015) Water and Heat Budgets of a Coastal Lagoon Controlled by Groundwater Outflow to the Ocean. Limnology, 16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10201-015-0449-4

[17]   Yamaguchi, S., Sato, H. and Matsui, M. (2003) Geology in the Churui District. Quadrangle Series, 1:50,000. Kushiro (2), No. 59, 68 p.

[18]   Braithwaite, R.J. (1995) Aerodynamic Stability and Turbulent Sensible-Heat Flux over a Melting Ice Surface, the Greenland Ice Sheet. Journal of Glaciology, 41, 562-571.

[19]   Campbell, G.S. and Norman, J.M. (1998) An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics. Springer, New York, 286 p.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-1626-1

[20]   Kondo, J. (1998) Meteorology in Aquatic Environments. 2nd Edition, Asakura Publication, Inc., Tokyo, 350 p.

[21]   Tanaka, S., Takeda, H., Iwata, T., Tsuchiya, T. and Terao, M. (2006) Architectural Environmental Engineering. 3rd Edition, Inoue Publ. Inc., Tokyo, 324 p.

[22]   Dingman, S.L. (2002) Physical Hydrology. 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 646 p.

[23]   Nakao, K. (1971) A Hydrological Study on the Stability of Water-Level of a Lake or a Swamp. Geophysical Bulletin, Hokkaido University, 25, 25-87.

 
 
Top