AJPS  Vol.6 No.7 , April 2015
Effect of Water Stress on the Growth and Yield of Cotton Crop (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
Abstract: Cotton is one of the most important fibre crops playing a key role in economic and social affairs of the world. Water is a critical factor which influences on growth and yield of the cotton crop. Scarcity of water has put tremendous pressure on scientists to introduce drought tolerant cotton varieties. This study was aimed to determine water stress effects on the growth and yield of cotton. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of number of irrigations on the growth and yield of cotton during 2014. The field trial was conducted at the Experimental Fields of Agronomy Section, Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam, Pakistan. A three replicated Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was employed to layout the experiment having plot size of 2.5 m × 5 m (12.5 m2). Four cotton varieties i.e. NIAB-78, Shahbaz-95, Sindh-1 and TH-224/87 were chosen for this study based on their frequent farmer usage. All the agronomic practices were performed according to standard procedures. Results showed that all the growth and yield components of cotton were significantly (P < 0.01) affected by varieties and irrigation frequencies with exception of monopodial branches and staple length, which were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by irrigation frequencies. The cotton crop irrigated six times at 21 days interval showed better results with 138.16 cm plant height, 1.45 monopodial branches per plant, 21.83 sympodial branches per plant, 44.58 bolls per plant, 33.86% G.O.T., and 26.97 mm staple length, 149.84 g seed cotton yield per plant and 2271.16 kg·ha-1 seed cotton yield. This study concluded that variety NIAB-78 showed superiority over Shahbaz-95, Sindh-1 and TH-224/87 in almost all the characters of economic importance, and the cotton crop received 6 irrigations at 21 days interval resulted in significantly economical overall performance as compared with 5 irrigations or 4 irrigations with higher seed cotton yield.
Cite this paper: Sahito, A. , Baloch, Z. , Mahar, A. , Otho, S. , Kalhoro, S. , Ali, A. , Kalhoro, F. , Soomro, R. and Ali, F. (2015) Effect of Water Stress on the Growth and Yield of Cotton Crop (Gossypium hirsutum L.). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 1027-1039. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.67108.

[1]   Zachary, G.P. (2007) Out of Africa: Cotton and Cash. The New York Times.

[2]   Dumka, D., Bednarz, C.W. and Maw, B.W. (2004) Delayed Initiation of Fruiting as a Mechanism of Improved Drought Avoidance in Cotton. Crop Science, 44, 528-534.

[3]   Dorothy, M. and Stolton, S. (2001) Organic Cotton: From Field to Final Product. 1-21.

[4]   Srinivasan, K. (2006) Bronze Age Trade and Writing System of Meluhha. 8.

[5]   Banks, J.C. (2000) Alleviating Stresses for Better Yield. Cotton Farming Home, 1-9.

[6]   Anonymous (2005) Pakistan Economic Survey, Government of Pakistan. Finance Division, Economic Advisor’s Wing, Islamabad, 11.

[7]   McAlavy, T.W. (2004) Researchers Investigate Cotton Irrigation Strategies. Agricultural Communications Taxas A & M University System.

[8]   Howell, T.A. (2001) Enhancing Water Use Efficiency in Irrigated Agriculture. Agronomy Journal, 93, 281-289.

[9]   Deng, X.-P., Shan, L., Zhang, H.P. and Turner, N.C. (2004) Improving Agricultural Water Use Efficiency in Arid and Semiarid Areas of China. New Directions for a Diverse Planet. Proceeding of the 4th International Crop Science Conference, Brisbane.

[10]   Bhattarai, S.P. (2005) The Physiology of Water Use Efficiency of Crops Subjected to Subsurface Drip Irrigation, Oxygation and Salinity in a Heavy Clay Soil. Ph.D. Thesis, School of Biology & Environmental Science, Faculty of Arts, Health & Science, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton.

[11]   Hearn, B. (2000) The Science of Water Balance: Why Do We Need to Know? Proceedings of the 10th Australian Cotton Conference, Brisbane, 16-18 August 2000, 351-360.

[12]   Staggenborg, S.A., Krieg, D.R. and Harris, J.L. (1992) Water, Nitrogen and Radiation Use Efficiency of Cotton Production Systems. Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences, 3, 1029-1030.

[13]   Goyne, P.J. and McIntyre, G.T. (2001) Improving on Farm Irrigation Water Use Efficiency in the Queensland Cotton and Grain Industries. A Project of QDPI, Agency for Food and Fiber Sciences, Farming System Institute and Australian Cotton CRC.

[14]   Ertek, A. and Kanber, R. (2001) Effects of Different Irrigation Programs on the Growth of Cotton under Drip Irrigation. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 25, 415-425.

[15]   Varlev, I., Popova, Z. and Gospodinov, I. (2000) Furrow Surge Irrigation as a Water Saving Technique. Water and the Environment: Innovation in Irrigation and Drainage. Proceedings of the 1st Inter-Regional Conference, Lisbon, 16-18 September 1998, 131-139.

[16]   Hood, S. (2002) Rural Water Use Efficiency. Real Water Use Efficiency and the Opportunity. Proceedings of the 11th Australian Cotton Conference, Brisbane, 13-15 August 2002, 285-295.

[17]   Nadanassababdy, T. and Kandasamy, O.S. (2002) Effect of Chemical and Cultural Weed Control on Nutrient Removal by Cotton and Associated Weeds. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 34, 316-317.

[18]   Harris, G. (2005) Irrigation Water Balance Scheduling. AFFS Farming Systems, DPI and Staff of Australian Cotton Cooperative Research Centre, 1-5.

[19]   Patel, P.G., Patel, D.M. and Patel, U.G. (1995) Response of Cotton G.Cot.Hy.8 to Irrigation Based on IW/CPE Ratio. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal, 20, 143-145.

[20]   El-Shahawy, M.I.M. and Abd-El-Malik, R.R. (2005) Response of Giza 87 Cotton Cultivar Gossypium barbadense L. to Irrigation Intervals and Nitrogen Fertilization Levels. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 77, 841-856.

[21]   Abdel-Malak, K.K.I. and Radwan, F.E. (1998) The Proper Irrigation Intervals for Vegetative and Fruiting Stages of Cotton Cultivar Giza 83. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 76, 765-772.

[22]   Pedroza, S.A. and Flores, A. (1998) Effect of Irrigation, Sowing Methods, and Dosages of Organic Matter on the Control of Phymatotrichum omnivorum in Cotton. Revista Chapingo: Serie Ingeniería Agropecuaria, 1, 29-32.

[23]   Rajput, H.A. (2006) Effect of Different Irrigation Regimes on the Performance of Different Cotton Cultivars. Master’s Thesis, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam.

[24]   Enciso, J.M., Unruh, B.L., Colaizzi, P.D. and Multer, W.L. (2003) Cotton Response to Subsurface Drip Irrigation Frequency under Deficit Irrigation. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 19, 555-558.