NS  Vol.7 No.5 , May 2015
Cylindrical and Spherical Membranes of Anodic Aluminum Oxide with Highly Ordered Conical Nanohole Arrays
Abstract: Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with uniform and controllable pore diameters and periods over a wide range has been explored for various applications due to relatively easy fabrication processes. Moreover, one of the interesting possibilities afforded by the anodization process is that the anodization can take place on aluminum films with arbitrary shape, such as a section of cylinder or sphere, which has not yet been well studied or applied in nanofabrication. In this paper, we report that highly ordered conical nanohole arrays prepared by the anodization of cylindrical and spherical Al films have been fabricated. As can be seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), straight nanohole arrays have been grown along the radical directions of the cylindrical or spherical alumina membrane without bending or branching at all, the diameter of the conical nanoholes and the diameter change along individual channels can be tuned by changing the curvature of the membrane. These new types of templates may open new opportunities in optical, electronic and electrochemical applications.
Cite this paper: Pang, Y. and Chandrasekar, R. (2015) Cylindrical and Spherical Membranes of Anodic Aluminum Oxide with Highly Ordered Conical Nanohole Arrays. Natural Science, 7, 232-237. doi: 10.4236/ns.2015.75026.

[1]   Masuda, H., Yada, K. and Osaka, A. (1998) Self-Ordering of Cell Configuration of Anodic Porou Alumina with Large-Size Pores in Phosphoric Acid Solution. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 37, L1340-L1342.

[2]   Martin, C.R. (1994) Nanomaterials: A Membrane-Based Synthetic Approach. Science, 266, 1961-1966.

[3]   Thompson, G.E. and Wood, G.C. (1981) Porous Anodic Film Formation on Aluminium. Nature, 290, 230-232.

[4]   Masuda, H. and Fukuda, K. (1995) Ordered Metal Nanohole Arrays Made by a Two-Step Replication of Honeycomb Structures of Anodic Alumina. Science, 268, 1466-1468.

[5]   Cheng, C. and Ngan, A.H.W. (2013) Fast Fabrication of Self-Ordered Anodic Porous Alumina on Oriented Aluminum Grains by High Acid Concentration and High Temperature Anodization. Nanotechnology, 24, 215602-215612.

[6]   Lakshmi, B.B., Dorhout, P.K. and Martin, C.R. (1997) Sol-Gel Template Synthesis of Semiconductor Oxide Micro- and Nanostructures. Chemistry of Materials, 9, 2544-2550.

[7]   Yin, A.J., Li, J., Jian, W., Bennett, A.J. and Xu, J.M. (2001) Fabrication of Highly Ordered Metallic Nanowire Arrays by Electrodeposition. Applied Physics Letters, 79, 1039-1041.

[8]   Nicewarner-Pena, S.R., Freeman, R.G., Reiss, B.D., He, L., Pena, D.J., Walton, I.D., Cromer, R., Keating, C.D. and Natan, M.J. (2001) Submicrometer Metallic Barcodes. Science, 294, 137-141.

[9]   Pang, Y.-T., Meng, G.-W., Zhang, L.-D., Qin, Y., Gao, X.-Y., Zhao, A.-W. and Fang, Q. (2002) Arrays of Ordered Pb Nanowire and Its Optical Properties for Laminated Polarizers. Advanced Functional Materials, 12, 719-722.<719::AID-ADFM719>3.0.CO;2-J

[10]   Fan, Z.Y., Razavi, H., Do, J.-W., Moriwaki, A., Ergen, O., Chueh, Y.-L., Leu, P.W., Ho, J.C., Takahashi, T., Reichertz, L.A., et al. (2009) Three-Dimensional Nanopillar-Array Photovoltaics on Low-Cost and flexible Substrates. Nature Materials, 8, 648-653.

[11]   Fan, Z.Y., Kapadia, R., Leu, P.W., Zhang, X.B., Chueh, Y.L., Takei, K., Yu, K., Jamshidi, A., Rathore, A.A., Ruebusch, D.J., et al. (2010) Ordered Arrays of Dual-Diameter Nanopillars for Maximized Optical Absorption. Nano Letters, 10, 3823-3827.

[12]   Che, G., Lakshmi, B.B., Fisher, E.R. and Martin, C.R. (1998) Carbon Nanotubule Membranes for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Production. Nature, 393, 346-349.

[13]   Li, J., Papadopoulos, C., Xu, J.M. and Moskovits, M. (1999) Highly-Ordered Carbon Nanotube Arrays for Electronics Applications. Applied Physics Letters, 75, 367-369.

[14]   Li, J., Papadopoulos, C. and Xu, J.M. (1999) Y-Junction Carbon Nanotubes and Controlled Growth. Nature, 402, 253-254.

[15]   Suh, J.S., Lee, J.S. and Kim, H. (2001) Linearly Joined Carbon Nanotubes. Synthetic Metals, 123, 381-383.

[16]   Jeong, S., Hwang, H., Lee, K. and Jeong, Y. (2001) Template-Based Carbon Nanotubes and Their Application to a Field Emitter. Applied Physics Letters, 78, 2052-2054.

[17]   Hu, W., Yuan, L., Chen, Z., Gong, D. and Saito, K. (2002) Fabrication of Nanoelectrodes Using Porous Alumina Nanotemplates. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2, 203-207.

[18]   Steinhart, M., Wehrspohn, R.B., Gosele, U. and Wendorff, J.H. (2003) Nanotubes by Template Wetting: A Modular Assembly System. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 43, 1334-1344.

[19]   Choi, W.B., Bae, E., Kang, D., Chae, S., Cheong, B.H., Ko, J.H., Lee, E. and Park, W. (2004) Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Nanoelectronics. Nanotechnology, 15, S512.

[20]   Crouse, D., Lo, Y., Miller, A.E. and Crouse, M. (2000) Self-Ordered Pore Structure of Anodized Aluminum on Silicon and Pattern Transfer. Applied Physics Letters, 76, 49-51.

[21]   Liang, L., Chik, H., Yin, A. and Xu, J. (2002) Two-Dimensional Lateral Superlattices of Nanostructures: Nonlithographic Formation by Anodic Membrane Template. Journal of Applied Physics, 91, 2544-2546.

[22]   Nishioa, K. and Masuda, H. (2004) Dependence of Optical Properties of Ordered Metal Hole Array on Refractive Index of Surrounding Medium. Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 7, H27-H28.

[23]   Goh, C., Coakley, K.M. and McGehee, M.D. (2005) Nanostructuring Titania by Embossing with Polymer Molds Made from Anodic Alumina Templates. Nano Letters, 5, 1545-1549.

[24]   Masuda, H., Asoh, H., Watanabe, M., Nishio, K., Nakao, M. and Tamamura, T. (2001) Square and Triangular Nanohole Array Architectures in Anodic Alumina. Advanced Materials, 13, 189-192.<189::AID-ADMA189>3.0.CO;2-Z

[25]   Ergen, O., Ruebusch, D.J., Fang, H., Rathore, A.A., Kapadia, R., Fan, Z.Y., Takei, K., Jamshidi, A., Wu, M. and Javey, A. (2010) Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Nanopillar Arrays by Template-Assisted Vapor-Liquid- Solid Process. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132, 13972-13974.

[26]   Kawata, S., Ono, A. and Verma, P. (2008) Subwavelength Colour Imaging with a Metallic Nanolens. Nature Photonics, 2, 438-442.

[27]   Yin, A.J., Guico, R.S. and Xu, J. (2007) Fabrication of Anodic Aluminium Oxide Templates on Curved Surfaces. Nanotechnology, 18, Article ID: 035304.

[28]   Chen, B. and Lu, K. (2011) Influence of Patterned Concave Depth and Surface Curvature on Anodization of Titania Nanotubes and Alumina Nanopores. Langmuir, 27, 12179-12185.

[29]   Chung, C.K., Liao, M.W., Lee, C.T. and Chang, H.C. (2011) Anodization of Nanoporous Alumina on Impurity-Induced Hemisphere Curved Surface of Aluminum at Room Temperature. Nanoscale Research Letters, 6, 596.

[30]   Lyvers, D.P., Moon, J.M., Kildishev, A.V., Shalaev, V.M. and Wei, A. (2008) Gold Nanorod Arrays as Plasmonic Cavity Resonators. ACS Nano, 2, 2569-2576.

[31]   Barnakov, Yu.A., Kiriy, N., Black, P., Li, H., Yakim, A.V., Gu, L., Mayy, M., Narimanov, E.E. and Noginov, M.A. (2011) Toward Curvilinear Metamaterials Based on Silver-Filled Alumina Templates. Optical Materials Express, 1, 1601-1604.