OJAppS  Vol.5 No.4 , April 2015
Optical Characterization of (TMA)2ZnCl4 Single Crystals in the Normal Phase
Abstract: The transmittance (T) and the reflectance (R) were measured for (TMA)2ZnCl4 single crystals and hence the absorption coefficient (α), extinction coefficient (Kex.), refractive index (n), real and im-aginary dielectric constants (ε', ε") of (TMA)2ZnCl4 crystals were calculated as a function of photon energy. The analysis of the spectra behavior of the absorption coefficient in the absorption region revealed indirect transition. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in terms of the sin-gle oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico model. The single oscillator energy (E0), the dispersion energy (Ed), the lattice dielectric constant (εL) and the ratio of free charge carrier concentration to the ef-fective mass (N/m*) were estimated. The FTIR spectra were recorded to study the functional groups of the as grown and annealed samples.
Cite this paper: El-Fadl, A. , Almokhtar, M. and Nashaat, A. (2015) Optical Characterization of (TMA)2ZnCl4 Single Crystals in the Normal Phase. Open Journal of Applied Sciences, 5, 169-181. doi: 10.4236/ojapps.2015.54017.

[1]   Axe, J.D., Lizumi, M. and Shirane, G. (1986) In: Blinc, R. and Levanyuk, A.P., Eds., Incommensurate Phases in Dielec- trics, Vol. 2, North-Holland, Amsterdam.

[2]   Styrkowiec, R. (1998) Time Relaxation of Dielectric Permittivity in [N(CH3)4]2ZnCl4 Crystals. Ferroelectrics Letters, 24, 25-32.

[3]   Lim, A.R., Park, D.K., Chang, J.-H. and Jeong, S.-Y. (2001) Ferroelastic Domain Switching Behaviour of [N(CH3)4]2CuC14 and [N(CH3)4]2ZnC14 Single Crystals Studied by External Stress. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 70, 1937- 1941.

[4]   Styrkowiec, R. and Czapla, Z. (1997) Dielectric Properties of [N(CH3)4]2ZnCl4 Crystal under Influence of Electric Field and Uniaxial Stresses. Phase Transitions, 60, 155-172.

[5]   Kim, D.-Y., Kwun, S.-I. and Yoon, J.-G. (1998) Linear Birefringence Behavior of (NH4)2ZnC14 and [N(CH)4]2CuC14 near the Normal-Incommensurate Phase Transition. Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 32, 898-901.

[6]   Sveleba, S., Zhmurko, V., Kapustianik, V., Polovinko, I. and Trybula, Z. (1993) Influence of Electric Field and Mechanical Stresses on the Properties of Incommensurate Phases in (N(CH3)4)2ZnCl4 and (N(CH3)4)2CoCl4 Crystals. Physica Status Solidi (a), 140, 573-585.

[7]   Sveleba, S.A., Katerinchuk, I.M. and Semotyuk, O.V. (2010) Temperature Dependence of the Crystal-Optics Characteristics of [N(CH3)4]2ZnCl4:Ni2+ Crystals with Correlated Motion of Tetrahedral Groups. Crystallography Reports, 55, 253-257.

[8]   Vogels, L.J.P., Meekes, H. and de Boer, J.L. (1994) An X-Ray Diffraction Study on the Temperature and Chemical Com- position Dependence of the Modulation Wave Vector in ((CH3)4N)2ZnCl4-xBrx Compounds. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 6, 8205-8218.

[9]   Abu El-Fadl, A. and Nashaat, A.M. (BSP-TOOPTSJ-2015-25) Temperature Dependence of the Optical Band Gap and Optical Parameters of Tetramethyl Ammonium Tetrachlorozincate (TMA)2ZnCl4 Single Crystals around the Normal and Incommensurate Phase Transitions. Paper Submitted for Publications in Journal of Modern Optics.

[10]   Bassani, F. and Parravicini, G.P. (1975) Electronic States and Optical Transitions in Solids. Pergamon, New York.

[11]   Hasegawa, H., Yazaki, S. and Shimizu, T. (1978) Effects of Annealing on Gap States in Amorphous Si Films. Solid State Communications, 26, 407-410.

[12]   Cohen, M.H., Fritzsche, H. and Ovshinsky, S.R. (1969) Simple Band Model for Amorphous Semiconducting Alloys. Physical Review Letters, 22, 1065-1067.

[13]   El-Korashy, A. (2000) Optical Band Gap Studies of [N(CH3)4]2ZnCl4 Single Crystals on the Paraelectric Phase. Journal of Materials Science Letters, 19, 29-31.

[14]   Abu El-Fadl, A., Gaffar, M.A. and Omar, M.H. (1999) Absorption Spectra and Optical Parameters of Lithium-Potassium Sulphate Single Crystals. Physica B, 269, 403-408.

[15]   Sabari Girisun, T.C. and Dhanuskodi, S. (2009) Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Tristhiourea Zinc Sulphate Single Crystals. Crystal Research and Technology, 44, 1297-1302.

[16]   Victor Antony Raj, M., Prem Anand, D. and Madhavan, J. (2013) Linear and Non Linear Optical Properties of L-Alaninium Malate (LAM) Single Crystal an Efficient Organic NLO Material. Sciencia Acta Xaveriana, 4, 41-50.

[17]   Aziz, M.S. and El-Mallah, H.M. (2009) Electrical and Optical Properties of Azo Dye. Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, 47, 530-534.

[18]   Dahshan, A., Amer, H.H. and Aly, K.A. (2008) Compositional Dependence of the Optical Constants of Amorphous GexAs20Se80-x Thin Films. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 41, Article ID: 215401.

[19]   Abdel-Aziz, M.M., El-Metwally, E.G., Fadel, M., Labib, H.H. and Afifi, M.A. (2001) Optical Properties of Amorphous Ge Se9–x Tlx System Films. Thin Solid Films, 386, 99-104.

[20]   Zeng, J.S.Q., Greif, R., Stevens, P., Ayers, M. and Hunt, A. (1996) Effective Optical Constants n and κ and Extinction Coefficient of Silica Aerogel. Journal of Materials Research, 11, 687-693.

[21]   Wemple, S.H. and DiDomenico Jr., M. (1971) Behavior of the Electronic Dielectric Constant in Covalent and Ionic Materials. Physical Review B, 3, 1338-1351.

[22]   Wemple, S.H. and DiDomenico, M. (1969) Optical Dispersion and the Structure of Solids. Physical Review Letters, 23, 1156-1160.

[23]   Fadel, M., Fayek, S.A., Abou-Helal, M.O., Ibrahim, M.M. and Shakra, A.M. (2009) Structural and Optical Properties of SeGe and SeGeX (X = In, Sb and Bi) Amorphous Films. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 485, 604-609.

[24]   Gupta, V. and Mansingh, A. (1996) Influence of Post Deposition Annealing on the Structural and Optical Properties of Sputtered Zinc Oxide Film. Journal of Applied Physics, 80, 1063-1073.

[25]   Tanaka, K. (1980) Optical Properties and Photoinduced Changes in Amorphous AsxS100-x Films. Thin Solid Films, 66, 271-279.

[26]   Ganguly, S., Rao, K.J. and Rao, C.N.R. (1985) An Infrared Spectroscopic Study of the Incommensurate Transitions and Related Phase Changes in K2Pb[Cu(NO2)6] and [N(CH3)4]2MX4 (M = Mn, Co, Cu or Zn and X = Cl or Br). Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 41, 307-314.