AiM  Vol.5 No.4 , April 2015
Dissemination of Salmonella bacilli through Carriers and Domestic Water Sources in Enugu Urban/Peri-Urban of Nigeria
Abstract: Salmonella bacilli infection has remained an important health problem in the developing world. The transmission of S. typhi most often occurs through food and water, which have been contaminated by faeces from carriers and infected humans. Prevalence of carriers is a factor in transmission. The population under study lacked access to clean and safe water. Patients practiced self medication with inadequate dosing leading to relapsing infections and chronic carrier state. With this, there is a need to determine the actual dissemination index of the salmonella organism in the locality. The isolation from stool, blood and water samples were made using enrichment broths and selective media. Identification of isolates was carried out using standard methods. Characterization was done using O and H polyvalent sera. The total number of infected subjects within the 15 household was 22 (36.7%) among whom 10 (16.7%) were confirmed carriers. The total number/percentage infected by carrier contact was 9 (39.1%). Consumption of well water gave rise to the highest (60.0%) attack rate of typhoid fever infection. The continuance exposure to contaminated water source could be consistent to incessant and relapsing typhoid fever attacks in exposed individuals. Chronic carriers pose great risk to other members of the household, therefore regular screening is required.
Cite this paper: Eleazar, C. , Philip, I. and Ogeneh, B. (2015) Dissemination of Salmonella bacilli through Carriers and Domestic Water Sources in Enugu Urban/Peri-Urban of Nigeria. Advances in Microbiology, 5, 278-284. doi: 10.4236/aim.2015.54026.

[1]   Kariuki, S., Revathi, G., Muyodi, J., Mwituria, J., Munyalo, A. and Mirza, S. (2004) Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Typhoid Outbreaks in Kenya. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42, 1477-1482.

[2]   Issack, M.I. (2005) Epidemiology of Typhoid Fever in Mauritius. Journal of Travel Medicine, 1295, 270-276.

[3]   Wasfy, M.O., Frenck, R., Ismail, T.F., Mansour, H., Malone, J.L. and Mahoney, M. (2002) Trends of Multiple-Drug Resistance among Salmonella Serotype Typhi Isolates during a 14-Year Period in Egypt. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 35, 1265-1268.

[4]   Akinyemi, K.O., Bamiro, B.S. and Coker, A.O. (2007) Salmonellosis in Lagos, Nigeria: Incidence of Plasmodium Falciparum-Associated Co-Infection, Patterns of Antimicrobial Resistance, and Emergence of Reduced Susceptibility to Fluoroquinolones. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition, 25, 351-358.

[5]   Nkemngu, N.J., Asonganyi, E.D. and Njude, A.L. (2005) Treatment Failure in a Typhoid Patient Infected Nalidixic Acid Resistant S. enterica Serovar Typhi with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin: A Case Report from Cameroon. British Medicals and infectious Disease, 5, 49.

[6]   Bhan, M.K., Bahl, R. and Bhatnagar, S. (2005) Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Lancet, 366, 749-762.

[7]   Huckstep, R.L. and Wright, F.J. (2002) The Salmonellae. S. Livingston Ltd., Edinburgh and London, 25-34.

[8]   Reller, M.E., Olsen, S.J., Kressel, A.B., Moon, T.D., Kubota, K.A., Adcock, M.P., et al. (2003) Sexual Transmission of Typhoid Fever: A Multistate Outbreak among Men Who Have Sex with Men. Clinical Infectious Disease, 37, 141-144.

[9]   Brooks, G.F., Butel, J.S. and Morse, S.A. (2004) The Salmonella-Arizona Group. Medical Micrbiology. 23rd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 256-260.

[10]   Ismail, T.F. (2006) Rapid Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 123, 489-492.

[11]   World Health Organization (2003) Typhoid Vaccine, Immunization, Vaccines and Biological. Geneva.

[12]   Luxemburger, C., Chau, M.C., Mai, N.L., Wain, J., Tran, T.H. and Simpson, J.A. (2001) Risk Factors for Typhoid Fever in the Mekong Delta, Southern Viet Nam: A Case-Control Study. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 95, 19-23.

[13]   Kumar, K.S., Harada, H. and Karn, S. (2002) Field Survey on Water Supply, Sanitation and Associated Health Impacts in Urban Poor Communities—A Case from Mumbai City, India. Water Science and Technology, 46, 269-275.

[14]   Tran, H.H., Bjune, G., Nguyen, B.M., Rottingen, J.A., Grais, R.F. and Guerin, P.J. (2005) Risk Factors Associated with Typhoid Fever in Son La Province, Northern Vietnam. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 99, 819-826.

[15]   Adeleke, O.E., Adepoju, T.J. and Ojo, D.A. (2006) Prevalence of Typhoid Fever and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Its Causative Agent Salmonella typhi. Nigerian J. Microbiol., 20, 1191-1197.

[16]   Xavier, G. (2006) Management of Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fevers. Nursing Times, 102, 49-51.

[17]   Smith, S.I., Goodluck, H.T., Fowora, B.M. and Omonigbehin, E. (2008) Prevalence of Salmonella typhi among Food Handlers from Bukkas in Nigeria. Moleculer Biology and Biotechnology Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research. British Journal of Biomedical Science, 65, 158-160.

[18]   Ameh, I.G. and Opara, W.E.K. (2004) Typhoid: A Record of Cases in Sokoto, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 7, 1177-1180.

[19]   Bhutta, Z.A. (2006) Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Typhoid Fever. British Medical Journal, 333, 78-82.

[20]   Okonko, I.O., Soleye, F.A., Eyarefe, O.D., Amusan, T.A., Abubakar, M.J., Adeyi, A.O., et al. (2010) Prevalence of Salmonella typhi among Patients in Abeokuta, South-Western Nigeria. British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1, 6-14.