ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antidepressive-like effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), one of available blood-activating and stasis-eliminating components from traditional Chinese medicines, and its mechanism of the antidepressant-like action. Forced-swimming, tail-suspension, reserpine-induced hypothermia, akinesia and ptosis, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head-twitch, and potentiation of noradrenaline (NE) toxicity tests, were per-formed to assess the potential antidepressant-like activity of TMP and to study the mechanism by which TMP exerts the antidepressant-like action. Intragastric (ig) administration of TMP markedly reduced the duration of immobility during forced-swimming tests and tail-supension test in rats and mice. TMP partialy reversed reserpine-induced hypothermia, ptosis and akinesia, and potentiated NE toxicity in mice, and these are similar to those of clomipramine; however, TMP did not potentiate 5-HTP-induced head-twitch response (HTR) in mice, and this is different from that of fluoxetine (FLU). The present data provide evidences that TMP possesses potent antidepressant-like activity, and it might be an adrenergic component of pharmacological activity, and its mechanism of antidepressant-like action is similar to that of clomipramine, and different from that of FLU.
Cite this paper
nullL. Yu, X. Jiang, M. Liao, R. Ma and T. Yu, "Antidepressant-Like Effect of Tetramethylpyrazine in Mice and Rats," Neuroscience and Medicine, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2011, pp. 142-148. doi: 10.4236/nm.2011.22020.
 L. HBach-RojeckyH, Z. HKalodjeraH and I. Samarzija, “The antidepressant activity of Hypericum perforatum L. measured by two experimental methods on mice, ” HActa Pharm,H Vol. 54, No. 2, 2004, pp. 157-162.
 X. Zhong, Q. Mao, Z. Huang and J. Wei, “Anti-depressive effect of Suyu capsules in mice,” Chin J New Drugs, Vol. 15, No. 15, 2006, pp. 1247-1249.
 H. B. Zhong, Y. Pan and L. D. Kong, “Antidepressant effect of Epimedium brevicornum extracts,” Chin Tradit Herbal Drugs, Vol. 36, No. 10, 2005, pp. 1506-1510.
 Q. Mao, Z. Huang, S. Ip and C. Che, “Antidepressant-like effect of ethanol extract from Paeonia lactiflora in mice,” HPhytother ResH, Vol. 22, No. 11, 2008, pp. 1496-1499.
 G. Liu, “Chinese herbal medicine,” Hua Xia Publishing House, Beijing, 2001, pp. 227-228.
 H. B. Li and F. Chen, “Preparative isolation and purification of chuanxiongzine from the medicinal plant Ligusticum chuanxiong by high-speed counter-current chromatography,” J Chromatogr A, Vol. 1047, No. 2, 2004, pp. 249-253.
 M. Su, Y. Zhou and G. Yang, “Effects of tetramethylpyrazine on L-type calcium-channel current and the intracellular calcium concentration in primary cultured hippocampal neuronal cells,” China J Rehabil, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2008, pp. 17-19.
 Y. B. Ji, “Pharmacological action and application of blood-activating and stasis-eliminating available composition of traditional Chinese medicine,” Heilongjiang Science and Technique Press, Harbin, 1999, pp.118-121.
 K. Taghzouti, S. Lamarque, M. Kharouby and H. Simon, “Interindividual differences in active and passive behaviors in the forced-swimming test: implications for animal models of psychopathology,” Biol Psychiatry, Vol. 45, No. 6, 1999, pp. 750–758.
 R. D. Porsolt, M. le Pichon and M. Jalfre, “Depression: a new animal model sensitive to antidepressant treatments,” Nature, Vol. 266, No. 5604, 1977, pp. 730-732.
 R. D. Porsolt, G. Anton, N. Blavet and M. Jalfre, “Behaviour despair in rats: a new model sensitive to antidepressant treatments,” Eur J Pharmacol, Vol. 47, No. 4, 1978, pp. 379-391.
 R. D. Porsolt, A. Bertin and M. Jalfre, “Behaviour despair in mice: a primary screening test for antidepressants,” Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther, Vol. 229, No. 2, 1977, pp. 327-336.
 L. Steru，R. Chermat, B. Thierry and P. Simon, “The tail suspension test：a new method for screening antidepressants in mice,” Psychopharmacology, Vol. 85, No. 3, 1985, pp. 367-370.
 J. M. Vaugeois, G.. Passera, F. Zuccaro and J. Costentin, “Individual differences in response to imipramine in the tail mouse suspension test,” Psychopharmacology, Vol. 134, No. 4, 1997, pp. 387-391.
 Z. Yan and Z. Luo, “Experimental methods of antidepressant pharmacology,” In: Q. Zhang, Ed., Experimental methods of modern pharmacology, The Press of Medical University of Beijing, Beijing, 1998, pp. 1063.
 C. C. Sànchez-Mateo, C. X. Bonkanka, B. Prado and R. M. Rabanal, “Antidepressant activity of some Hypericum relexum L. fil. extracts in the forced swimming test in mice,” J Ethnopharmacol, Vol. 112, No. 1, 2007, pp. 115-121.
 HC. AH. Hubbard and HJ. MH. Trugman, “Reversal of reserpine-induced catalepsy by selective D1 and D2 dopamine agonists,” HMov Disord, Vol. H8, No. 4, 1993, pp. 473-478.
 E. L. Shelkunov, “Effect of imipramine-like antidepressants on head twitching in mice induced by 5-hydroxytryptophan,” HBull Exp Biol MedH, Vol. 86, No. 9, 1978, pp. 1171-1173.
 D. Ahsana and K. Shagufta, “Antidepressant effects of ethanol extract of Areca catechu in rodents,” Phytother Res, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1998, pp. 174-176.
 Y. M. Wang, L. D. Kong and Y. M. Chen, “Behavioural and biochemical effects of fractions prepared from Banxia Houpudecoction in depression models in mice,” Phytother Res, Vol. 19, No. 6, 2005, pp. 526-529.
 Q. Mao and Z. Huang, “Antidepressant drugs and animal models of depression,” Foreign Medical Sciences. Section of Psychiatry, Vol. 32, No.2, 2005, pp. 216-220.
 M. Bourin, M. Poncelet, R. Chermat and P. Simon, “The value of the reserpine test in psychopharmacology,” Arzneim Forsch Drug Res, Vol. 33, No. 8, 1983, pp. 1173-1176.
 B. Yan, D. Y. Wang, D. M. Xing, Y. Ding, R. F. Wang, F. Lei and L. J. Du, “The antidepressant effect of ethanol extract of radix puerariae in mice exposed to cerebral ischemia reperfusion,” Pharmacol Biochem Behav, Vol. 78, No. 2, 2004, pp. 319-325.