Back
 AJPS  Vol.2 No.2 , June 2011
Fungitoxicity of Methyl Iodide, Sulfuryl Fluoride, and Methyl Bromide to Ceratocystis fagacearum in Red Oak, Maple, Poplar, Birch and Pine Wood
Abstract: The threat of wood-inhabiting fungi to American hardwood forests, lumber industries, and tourism has enormous eco-nomic significance, and the aesthetic and dollar values of properties are potentially disastrous. The efficacy of methyl iodide (MeI) and sulfuryl fluoride (SF) for eradicating wood-inhabiting fungus, Ceratocystis fagacearum was assessed in wood blocks of birch, maple, poplar and red pine based on in-vitro experiments. In a series of replicated controlled experiments, wood blocks were inoculated with a 1g macerated mycelium/spores mixture of C. fagacearum and fumigated with 160 and 240 g/m3 of MeI, SF and methyl bromide (MeBr) as control) for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Analysis of variance showed that fumigant types, fumigant concentrations, and exposure time as well as their interactions (C x T) had an effect on C. fagacearum recovery on tested wood species. Colonization of birch, maple, red pine, and poplar by C. fagacearum was significantly greater in non-fumigated samples than fumigated samples. C. fagacearum was greatly inhibited by MeI than SF in all wood species tested. Overall, the C x T products of ≤ 4.108 g-h/m3 for MeI and ≤ 8.755 g-h/m3 for SF were not effective in killing the fungus. These results suggest that longer treatment exposure time might achieve the goal of complete eradication of C. fagacearum and imply that MeI performed as well as MeBr in killing the fungus in some wood species by exposure time combination. Overall, MeI was most effective in killing the fungus than SF under the conditions of this study with potential implications for quarantine use.
Cite this paper: nullK. Tubajika and A. Barak, "Fungitoxicity of Methyl Iodide, Sulfuryl Fluoride, and Methyl Bromide to Ceratocystis fagacearum in Red Oak, Maple, Poplar, Birch and Pine Wood," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2011, pp. 268-275. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2011.22029.
References

[1]   R. L.Schmidt, D. L. Cassens and B. A. Jordan, B. A, “Control of graystain in yellow-poplar lumber by log fumigation with sulfuryl fluoride”, Forest Products Journal, Vol. 51, No. 9, 2001, pp. 50-52.

[2]   J. W Dubois and J. N Ruddick, “The fungal degradation of quaternary ammonium compounds in wood”. Inter. Res. Group on Wood Preservation, Doc. No. IRG/WP98- 10263. IRG Secretariat, Stockholm, Sweden, 1998.

[3]   J. J Morrell, M. E Corden, B. R Kropp, P. Przybylowicz, S.M Smith and C.M Sexton, “Basidiomycete colonization of air seasoned Douglas-fir poles”. In: Proc. American Wood Preserve Association, Vol. 83, 1987, pp. 284-296.

[4]   E. Allen, “Solid wood packing material as a pathway for non-indigenous species. Online workshop on exotic pests”. http://exoticpests.apsnet.org. Last accessed February 2011, 2011.

[5]   R. W. Haack, J. F Cavey, E. R. Hocbeke, and K. Law,”Anoplophora glabripennis: a new tree-infesting exotic cerambycid invades New York”, Newsl. Mich. Entomol. Soc. Vol. 41, 1996, pp1-3.

[6]   J. E. Cavey, E.R. Hoebeke, S. Passon, and S. W Lingafelter, “A new exotic threat to North America harwood forests: an Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschhulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), I. Larval description and diagnosis. Proc. Entomolo. Soc. Wash. Vol. 100, 1998, pp. 373-381.

[7]   I. D Dwinell, “Heat treatment and drying southern yellow pine lumber infested with pinewood nematodes”. Forest Products Journal, Vol. 40, No. 11/12, 1990, pp.53-56

[8]   I. D Dwinell, “Heat treatment southern yellow pine lumber to eradicate Bursaphalenchus xylophilus.” Nematologica Vol. 36, 1990, pp. 346-347.

[9]   MBTOC, 2006 Assessment Report of the methyl bromide Techinical Options Committee. UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya, 2007, 486 pp.

[10]   IPPC, “International Plant Protection Convention, No 15 Guidelines for regulating wood packing material in international trade (2002) with modification to Annex (2006)”, IPPC, 2006, Rome, 11pp.

[11]   IPPC, “IPPC, Recommendation, replacement or reduction of the use of methyl bromide as a phtosantiary measure”. Appendix 6. Report of the third session of the Commission on Phytosanitary Measures, IPPC, Rome, 2008, 10pp.

[12]   IPPC, “International Standards For Phtosantiray measures, Revision of ISPM No.15. Regulation of wood packing material in intenational trade. https://www.ippc.int/servlet/.

[13]   F. Kawakami, Y. Soma, H. Komatsu and Y. Matsumoto, “Effects of some fumigants on the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus infesting wooden packages. 4. Mortalility and CT Product in Methyl Bromide Fumigation with high loading of wood packing materials”, Res. Bull. Pl. Prot. Japan, Vol. 40, 2004, pp. 7-12.

[14]   A. V. Barack, Y. Wang, L. Xu, Z. Rong, X. Hang, and G.Zhan, “Methyl bromide as a quarantine treatment for Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera : Cerambycidae) in regulated wood packing material” J. Econ. Entomol. Vol. 98, No 6, 2005, pp. 1911-1916.

[15]   K. M. Tubajika, and A. V. Barak, “Methyl Iodide and Sulfuryl Fluoride as Quarantine Treatments for Solid Wood Packing Material”, MBAO Conference, Orlando, Florida, 2007, pp 131-1-7.

[16]   K. M Tubajika, and A. V. Barak, “Efficacy of sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide against wood-inhabiting fungi”, In: Proceedings Annual Research Conference on methyl bromide alternatives and Emission, Orlando, Fl, Nov. 6-9, 2006, pp. 147-1-8.

[17]   USEPA, “Protection of stratospheric ozone: Process for exemption quarantine and pre-shipment applications of methyl bromide”, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Rules and regulations, Federal Register Vol. 66, No. 139, 2001, pp 37752-37769.

[18]   EPA (2005) http://www.epa.gov/ozone/mbr. Last accessed Dec 2006.

[19]   R .P Woodward and R. L Schmidt,”Fungitoxicity of sulfuryl fluoride to ceratocystis fagacearum in vitro and in wilted red oak log sections”, Plant Disease, Vol. 79, 1995, pp. 1237-1239.

[20]   E. E. Kanega, “Some biological, chemical, and physical properties of sulfuryl fluoride as insecticidal fumigant” Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 50, 1957, pp. 1-6.

[21]   R. L. Schmidt, T. L. Ambergey, M. L. Sanders and C. D Bell, “Sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide fumigation of hardwood logs of various ages for control of lumber graystain”, Forest Products Journal, Vol. 48, No. 11/12, 1998, pp. 77-80.

[22]   W. L MacDonald, R. L Schmidt, and E. J Harmer, “Methyl bromide eradication of the oak wilt fungus from red and white oak logs”, Forest Products Journal, Vol. 35, No. 7/8, 1985, pp.11-16.

[23]   H. L Barnett, “Isolation and identification of the oak wilt fungus”, WV Experiment Station Bulletin 359, 1953.

[24]   T.W. Jones, “Fumigation may end oak embargoes”. Forest Products. Journal. Vol. 13, No. 12, 1963, p.564

[25]   A. D Partridge, “Fumigants kill the oak wilt fungus in wood. Forest Products Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1961, pp. 12-14

[26]   R. L Schmidt, “Methyl bromide eradication of oak wilt fungus from lumber”, The International Journal of Wood Preservation, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1983, pp. 123-126.

[27]   E. L. Schmidt, M. Ruetze, and D. W. French, “Methyl bromide treatment of oak wilt infected logs: laboratory and preliminary field fumigations”, Forest Products Journal, Vol. 32, 1982, pp.46-49.

[28]   APHIS, Treatment manual. Schedule T-312, Oak logs and lumber. Page 5-4-26. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Frederic, MD http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/online_manuals.shtml, 2011, pp. 5-4-26.

[29]   R. G Rhatigan, J. J Morrell, and G. M Filip,“Toxicity of methyl bromide to four pathogenic fungi in larch heartwood”, Forest Products Journal, Vol. 48, No. 3, 1998, pp. 63-67.

[30]   R. L. Schmidt, D. L Cassens, and J. J. Steen, “Log fumigation prevents sticker stain and enzyme-mediated sapwood discolorations in maple and hickory lumber”, Forest Products Journal, Vol. 47, No. 9, 1997, pp. 47-50.

[31]   W. R Mikle, D. Stewart, and O. A Globus, “Drywood termite metabolism of vikane fumigant as shown by labeled pool technique”, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry Vol. 11, 1963, pp. 226-230.

[32]   R. H Scheffrahn, N. Y. Su and R. C. Hsu, “Diffusion of methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride through selected structural wood matrices during fumigation”, Material and Organismen 27, 1992, pp. 147-155.

[33]   D. J Cross, “Penetration of metyl bromide into Pinus radiate wood and its significance for export quarantine”. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, Vol. 21, No. 2/3, 1991, pp.235-245.

[34]   V. Liese, K. Knigge, and M. Ruetze, “Fumigation experiments with methyl bromide on oak wood”, Material and Organismen Vol. 16, 1981, pp.265-280.

 
 
Top