AASoci  Vol.5 No.4 , April 2015
How Does Age Matter in the Linkage between Religious Involvement and Adult Self-Rated Health?
Author(s) Li Zhang*
ABSTRACT
Through conducting an age, period, and cohort analysis by running cross-classified random effect models, this research studies how age plays a role in the religious involvement and health relationship. Data are drawn from the U.S. General Social Survey, 1972 to 2008. For the most part, the results show that after controlling for the cohort and period effects, there is a loss of advantages in health with age for those who are more involved in religion. This finding suggests that when the period and cohort effects are taken into consideration, the cumulative advantage theory may not be supported in this case.

Cite this paper
Zhang, L. (2015) How Does Age Matter in the Linkage between Religious Involvement and Adult Self-Rated Health?. Advances in Applied Sociology, 5, 146-160. doi: 10.4236/aasoci.2015.54014.
References
[1]   Ainlay, S. C., & Smith, D. R. (1984). Aging and Religious Participation. The Journal of Gerontology, 39, 357-363.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronj/39.3.357

[2]   Cacioppo, J. (2002). Loneliness and Health: Potential Mechanisms. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 407-417.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006842-200205000-00005

[3]   CDC (2002). Number (in Millions) of Adults 18 Years and Older Who Were Current, Former, or Never Smokers, Overall and by Sex, Race, Hispanic Origin, Age, and Education, National Health Interview Surveys, Selected Years-United States, 1965-1995.

[4]   Chaves, M. (1989). Secularization and Religious Revival: Evidence from U.S. Church Attendance Rates, 1972-1986. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28, 464-477.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1386577

[5]   Chaves, M. (1991). Family Structure and Protestant Church Attendance: The Sociological Basis of Cohort and Age Effects. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 30, 501-514.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1387284

[6]   Chen, F., Yang, Y., & Liu, G. (2010). Social Change and Socioeconomic Disparities in Health over the Life Course in China: A Cohort Analysis. American Sociological Review, 75, 126-150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003122409359165

[7]   Corsentino, E. A., Collins, N., Sachs-Ericsson, N., & Blazer, D. G. (2009). Religious Attendance Reduces Cognitive Decline Among Older Women With High Levels of Depressive Symptoms. Journal of Gerontology, 64A, 1283-1289.

[8]   Dannefer, D. (2003). Cumulative Advantage/Disadvantage and the Life Course: Cross-Fertilizing Age and Social Science Theory. The Journal of Gerontology, 58, S327-S337.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/58.6.S327

[9]   Davis, J. A., Smith, T. W., & Marsden, P. V. (2004). General Social Surveys: Cumulative Codebook, 1972-2004. Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Center.

[10]   Ellison, C. G. (1991). Religious Involvement and Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 32, 80-99.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136801

[11]   Ellison, C. G. (1995). Race, Religious Involvement and Depressive Symptomatology in a Southeastern U.S. Community. Social Science & Medicine, 40, 1561-1572.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(94)00273-V

[12]   Ellison, C. G., & Fan, D. (2008). Daily Spiritual Experiences and Psychological Well-Being among US Adults. Social Indicators Research, 88, 247-271.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-007-9187-2

[13]   Ellison, C. G., & Taylor, R. J. (1996). Turning to Prayer: Social and Situational Antecedents of Religious Coping among African Americans. Review of Religious Research, 38, 111-131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3512336

[14]   Ferrao, K. F., & Kelly-Moore, J. A. (2003). Cumulative Disadvantage and Health: Long-Term Consequences of Obesity? American Sociological Review, 68, 707-729.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1519759

[15]   Ferraro, K. F., & Albrecht-Jensen, C. M. (1991). Does Religion Influence Adult Health? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 30, 193-202.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1387213

[16]   Fienberg, S. E., & Mason, W. M. (1982). Specification and Implementation of Age, Period and Cohort Models. New York: Springer-Verlag.

[17]   Firebaugh, G. (1989). Methods for Estimating Cohort Replacement Effects. Sociological Methodology, 19, 243-262.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/270954

[18]   Firebaugh, G., & Harley, B. (1991). Trends in U.S. Church Attendance: Secularization and Revival, or Merely Lifecycle Effects? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 30, 487-500.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1387283

[19]   Foley, D. P. (1988). Eleven Interpretations of Personal Suffering. Journal of Religion and Health, 27, 321-328.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01533200

[20]   Glenn, N. D. (2003). Distinguishing Age, Period, and Cohort Effects. In J. T. Mortimer, & M. J. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the Life Course (Vol. VI, pp. 465-476). New York: Springer Publisher.

[21]   Guy, R. F. (1982). Religion, Physical Disabilities, and Life Satisfaction in Older Age Cohorts. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 15, 225-232.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/3C3M-CBVK-KTVH-BDNG

[22]   Idler, E. L. (1987). Religious Involvement and the Health of the Elderly: Some Hypotheses and an Initial Test. Social Forces, 66, 226-238.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sf/66.1.226

[23]   Jones, J. W. (2004). Religion, Health, and the Psychology of Religion: How the Research on Religion and Health Helps Us Understand Religion. Journal of Religion and Health, 43, 317-327.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10943-004-4299-3

[24]   Koenig, H. G., Smiley, M., & Gonzales, J. P. (1988). Religion, Health and Aging: A Review and Theoretical Investigation. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

[25]   Levin, J. S., & Markides, K. S. (1985). Religious Attendance and Subjective Health. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 25, 31-40.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1386061

[26]   Levin, J. S., & Vanderpool, H. Y. (1987). Is Frequent Religious Attendance Really Conducive to Better Health? Toward an Epidemiology of Religion. Social Science and Medicine, 24, 589-600.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(87)90063-3

[27]   Lillard, L. A., & Waite, L. J. (1995). Til Death Do Us Part: Marital Disruption and Mortality. American Journal of Sociology, 100, 1131-1156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/230634

[28]   Link, B. G., Phelan, J. C., Miech, R., & Westin, E. L. (2008). The Resources that Matter: Fundamental Social Causes of Health Disparities and the Challenge of Intelligence. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49, 72-91.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002214650804900106

[29]   Lynch, S. M. (2003). Cohort and Life-Course Patterns in the Relationship between Education and Health: A Hierarchical Approach. Demography, 40, 309-331.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/dem.2003.0016

[30]   Martin, J. K., Pescosolido, B. A., Olafsdottir, S., & Mcleod, J. D. (2007). The Construction of Fear: Americans’ Preferences for Social Distance from Children and Adolescents with Mental Health Problems. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48, 50-67.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002214650704800104

[31]   Mason, K. O., Mason, W. M., Winsborough, H. H., & Poole, W. K. (1973). Some Methodological Issues in Cohort Analysis of Archival Data. American Sociological Review, 38, 242-258.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094398

[32]   Musick, M. A., House, J. S., & Williams, D. R. (2004). Attendance at Religious Services and Mortality in a National Sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45, 198-213.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002214650404500206

[33]   Nicholson, A., Rose, R., & Bobak, M. (2009). Association between Attendance at Religious Services and Self-Reported Health in 22 European Countries. Social Science & Medicine, 69, 519-528.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.06.024

[34]   Olafsdottir, S. (2007). Fundamental Causes of Health Disparities: Stratification, the Welfare State, and Health in the United States and Iceland. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48, 239-253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002214650704800303

[35]   Olafsdottir, S., & Pescosolido, B. A. (2009). Drawing the Line: The Cultural Cartography of Utilization Recommendations for Mental Health Problems. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 228-244.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002214650905000208

[36]   Read, J. G., & Emerson, M. O. (2005). Racial Context, Black Immigration and the U.S. Black/White Health Disparity. Social Forces, 84, 181-199.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/sof.2005.0120

[37]   Reyes-Ortiz, C. A., Berges, I. M., Raji, M. A., Koenig, H. G., Kuo, Y.-F., & Markides, K. S. (2008). Church Attendance Mediates the Association between Depressive Symptoms and Cognitive Functioning among Older Mexican Americans. Journal of Gerontology, 63, 480-486.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/63.5.480

[38]   Rogers, R. G., Rogers, A., & Belanger, A. (1992). Disability-Free Life among the Elderly in the United States: Sociodemographic Correlates of Functional Health. Journal of Aging and Health, 4, 19-42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089826439200400102

[39]   Rogers, R., Hummer, R. A., Krueger, P. M., & Pampel, F. C. (2005). Mortality Attributable to Cigarette Smoking in the United States. Population and Development Review, 31, 259-292.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2005.00065.x

[40]   Ryder, N. B. (1965). The Cohort as a Concept in the Study of Social Change. American Sociological Review, 30, 843-861.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2090964

[41]   Scheitle, C. P., & Adamczyk, A. (2010). High-Cost Religion, Religious Switching, and Health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51, 325-342.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022146510378236

[42]   Schwadel, P. (2010a). Age, Period, and Cohort Effects on U.S. Religious Service Attendance: The Declining Impact of Sex, Southern Residence, and Catholic Affiliation. Sociology of Religion, 71, 2-24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srq005

[43]   Schwadel, P. (2010b). Period and Cohort Effects on Religious Nonaffiliation and Religious Disaffiliation: A Research Note. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 49, 311-319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2010.01511.x

[44]   Sternthal, M. J., Williams, D. R., Musick, M. A., & Buck, A. C. (2010). Depression, Anxiety, and Religious Life: A Search for Mediators. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51, 343-359.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022146510378237

[45]   Strawbridge, W., Shema, S., Cohen, R., & Kaplan, G. (2001). Religious Attendance Increases Survival by Improving and Maintaining Good Health Behaviors, Mental Health, and Social Relationships. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 68-74.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15324796ABM2301_10

[46]   Warren, J. R., & Hernandez, E. M. (2007). Did Socioeconomic Inequalities in Morbidity and Mortality Change in the United States over the Course of the Twentieth Century? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48, 335-351.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002214650704800401

[47]   Witter, R. A., Stock, W. A., Okun, M. A., & Haring, M. J. (1985). Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Adulthood: A Quantitative Synthesis. Review of Religious Research, 26, 332-342.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3511048

[48]   Yang, Y. (2007). Is Old Age Depressing? Growth Trajectories and Cohort Variations in Late-Life Depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48, 16-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002214650704800102

[49]   Yang, Y. (2008). Social Inequalities in Happiness in the United States, 1972 to 2004: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis. American Sociological Review, 73, 204-226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000312240807300202

[50]   Zimmer, Z., Chayovan, N., Lin, H. S., & Natividad, J. (2004). How Indicators of Socioeconomic Status Relate to Physical Functioning of Older Adults in Three Asian Societies. Research on Aging, 26, 224-258.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0164027503260624

 
 
Top