ACS  Vol.5 No.2 , April 2015
Changes in Environmental Parameters and Their Impact on Forest Growth in Northern Eurasia
Abstract: We performed an empirical investigation of forest growth for two types of forests in northern Eurasia (larches and spruces) in order to show that the sensitivity of trees to the variable climate and geomagnetic field can be seen even under the large-scale average. The main purpose of this research was to model a forest growth rate V for each forest type on the basis of several environmental parameters influencing the tree growth in a high degree and to find the differences and similarities of the larches and spruces’ response to changing environment. We showed that V, which is related to the annual tree-ring width, could be derived from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. Averaged yearly by species for 1982-2006, it displayed a long-term decrease (most likely related to the global climate change) as well as short-term variations with periods of 2.2, 4 and 8 years. A composite function method was used for modeling. We selected several tree growth drivers (the temperature, precipitation, insolation and the geomagnetic field intensity) that were highly correlated with V, and a function was modeled that described the behavior of V. The correlation coefficients between the derived function and experimental time series were 0.8 for larches and 0.9 for spruces. Compared with spruces, larches demonstrated higher thermo-sensitivity. A loss of tree sensitivity to temperature changes is puzzling for dendroclimatology, as a similar process might have occurred during previous periods of sharp global climate changes (as observed currently). Sensitivity of trees to geomagnetic field changes is confirmed both at long- and short-timescales. Spruces are found to be more magnetosensitive than larches.
Cite this paper: Khabarova, O. and Savin, I. (2015) Changes in Environmental Parameters and Their Impact on Forest Growth in Northern Eurasia. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 5, 91-105. doi: 10.4236/acs.2015.52007.

[1]   Myneni, R.B., Keeling, C.D., Tucker, C.J., Asrar, G. and Nemani, R.R. (1997) Increased Plant Growth in the Northern High Latitudes from 1981 to 1991. Nature, 386, 698-702.

[2]   Bowman, D.M. (2009) Australia and Global Change. In: Cuff, D.J. and Goudie, A.S., Eds., The Oxford Companion to Global Change, Oxford University Press, New York, 48-52.

[3]   Adams, H.D., Macalady, A.K., Breshears, D.D., Allen, C.D., Stephenson, N.L., Saleska, S.R., Huxman, T.E. and McDowell, N.G. (2010) Climate-Induced Tree Mortality: Earth System Consequences. EOS Transactions AGU, 91, 153-154.

[4]   Bogaert, J., Zhou, L., Tucker, C.J., Myneni, R.B. and Ceulemans R. (2002) Evidence for a Persistent and Extensive Greening Trend in Eurasia Inferred from Satellite Vegetation Index Data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107.

[5]   Breuer, L., Eckhardt, K. and Frede, H.-G. (2003) Plant Parameter Values for Models in Temperate climates. Ecological Modelling, 169, 237-293.

[6]   Liu, Y.Y., van Dijk, A.I.J.M., McCabe, M.F., Evans, J.P. and de Jeu, R.A.M. (2013) Global Vegetation Biomass Change (1988-2008) and Attribution to Environmental and Human Drivers. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22, 692-705.

[7]   Yohe, G.W., Lasco, R.D., Ahmad, Q.K., Arnell, N.W., Cohen, S.J., Hope, C., Janetos, A.C. and Perezet, R.T. (2007) Perspectives on Climate Change and Sustainability. In: Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J. and Hanson, C.E., Eds., Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 811-841.

[8]   Eilmann, B., Zweifel, R., Buchmann, N., Fonti, P. and Rigling, A. (2009) Drought-Induced Adaptation of the Xylem in Scots Pine and Pubescent Oak. Tree Physiology, 29, 1011-1020.

[9]   Fontes, L., Bontemps, J.-D., Bugmann, H., Van Oijen, M., Gracia, C., Kramer, K., Lindner, M., Rotzer, T. and Skovs-gaard, J.P. (2010) Models for Supporting Forest Management in a Changing Environment. Forest Systems, 19, 8-29.

[10]   Kramer, K. and van der Werf, D.C. (2010) Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Concepts in Forest Genetic Modelling: Population-and Individually-Based Approaches. Forest Systems, 19, 100-112.

[11]   Mahecha, M.D., Reichstein, M., Carvalhais, N., Lasslop, G., Lange, H., Seneviratne, S.I., Vargas, R., Ammann, C., Arain, M.A., Cescatti, A., Janssens, I.A., Migliavacca, M., Montagnani, L. and Richardson, A.D. (2010) Global Convergence in the Temperature Sensitivity of Respiration at Ecosystem Level. Science, 329, 838-840.

[12]   Atkin, O.K., Atkinson, L.J., Fisher, R.A., Campbell, C.D., Zaragoza-Castells, J., Pitchford, J.W., Woodward, F.I. and Hurry, V. (2008) Using Temperature-Dependent Changes in Leaf Scaling Relationships to Quantitatively Account for Thermal Acclimation of Respiration in a Coupled Global Climate-Vegetation Mode. Global Change Biology, 14, 2709-2726.

[13]   Fraser-Smith, A.C. (1978) ULF Tree Potentials and Geomagnetic Pulsations. Nature, 271, 641-642.

[14]   Phirke, P.S., Kubde, A.B. and Umbarkar, S.P. (1996) The Influence of Magnetic Field on Plant Growth. Seed Science and Technology, 24, 375-392.

[15]   Fischer, G., Tausz, M., Kock, M. and Grill, D. (2004) Effects of Weak 16 2/3 Hz Magnetic Fields on Growth Parameters of Young Sunflower and Wheat Seedlings. Bioelectromagnetics, 25, 638-641.

[16]   Minorsky, P.V. and Bronstein, N.B. (2006) Natural Experiments Indicate that Geomagnetic Variations Cause Spatial and Temporal Variations in Coconut Palm Asymmetry. Plant Physiology, 142, 40-44.

[17]   Trebbi, G., Borghini, F., Lazzarato, L., Torrigiani, P., Calzoni, G.L. and Betti, L. (2007) Extremely Low Frequency Weak Magnetic Fields Enhance Resistance of NN Tobacco Plants to Tobacco Mosaic Virus and Elicit Stress-Related Biochemical Activities. Bioelectromagnetics, 28, 214-223.

[18]   Barlow, P.W., Fisahn, J., Yazdanbakhsh, N., Moraes, T., Khabarova, O.V. and Gallep, C.M. (2013) Arabidopsis thaliana Root Elongation Growth Is Sensitive to Lunisolar Tidal Acceleration and May Also Be Weakly Correlated with Geomagnetic Variations. Annals of Botany, 111, 859-872.

[19]   Berezina, N.M. (1964) Pre-Seeding Exposure of Agricultural Plants. Atomizdat, Moscow, 74 p. (In Russian)

[20]   Kopanev, V.I. (1985) Influence of the Hypo-Geomagnetic Field on Biological Objects. Nauka, Moscow, 64 p. (In Russian)

[21]   Kostina, G.I. and Runich, L.I. (1987) The Possibility to Use a Pulsing Magnetic Field for Stimulation of Sorghum Productivity. Agricultural Radiobiology, 3, 71-76. (In Russian)

[22]   Seregina, M.T. and Orlov, V.V. (1988) Response of Cereal Seeds on Pre-Seeding Treatment by Gradient Magnetic Field. In: Electromagnetic Field Applications in Agricultural Research and Production, Chelyabinsk, 97-108. (In Russian)

[23]   De Souza, A., Sueiro, L., González, L.M., Licea, L., Porras, E.P. and Gilart, F. (2008) Improvement of the Growth and Yield of Lettuce Plants by Non-Uniform Magnetic Fields. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 27, 173-184.

[24]   Hozayn, M. and Qados, A.M.S.A. (2010) Irrigation with Magnetized Water Enhances Growth, Chemical Constituent and Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L). Agriculture & Biology Journal of North America, 1, 671-676.

[25]   Grewal, H.S. and Maheshwari, B.L. (2011) Magnetic Treatment of Irrigation Water and Snow Pea and Chickpea Seeds Enhances Early Growth and Nutrient Contents of Seedlings. Bioelectromagnetics, 32, 58-65.

[26]   Audus, L.J. (1960) Magnetotropism: A New Plant-Growth Response. Nature, 185, 132-134.

[27]   Krilov, A.V. and Tarakanova, G.A. (1960) Magnetotropism of Plants and Its Nature. Physiology of Plants, 7, 191-197. (In Russian)

[28]   Presman, A.S. (1970) Electromagnetic Fields and Life. Plenum Press, New York, London.

[29]   Loginov, V.A. (1991) Change of the Erythrocyte Membrane Charge on Treatment by Pulse Magnetic Field. Biofizika, 36, 614-620. (In Russian)

[30]   Aksenov, S.I., Bulychev, A.A., Grunina, T.Y. and Turovetskii, V.B. (1996) On Mechanisms of Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Action on the Initial Stages of Germination in Wheat Seeds. Biophysics, 41, 925.

[31]   Khabarova, O.V. (2004) Investigation of the Tchizhevsky-Velhover Effect (Outstripping Reaction of the Biosphere on Geomagnetic Storms). Biophysics, 49, S60-S67.

[32]   Khabarova, O. and Dimitrova, S. (2009) On the Nature of People’s Reaction to Space Weather and Meteorological Weather Changes. Sun and Geosphere, 4, 60-71.

[33]   Reichenau, T.G. and Esser, G. (2003) Is Interannual Fluctuation of Atmospheric CO2 Dominated by Combined Effects of ENSO and Volcanic Aerosols? Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17, 1094-1205.

[34]   Savin, I.Yu., Bartalev, S.A., Loupian, E.A. and Medvedeva, M.A. (2009) Relationship between Vegetation Dynamics in North-Eastern Eurasia and Solar Activity. Contemporary Problems of Remote Sensing (Sovremennie problemi distantsionnogo zondirovania Zemly iz kosmosa—In Russian), 2, 425-433.

[35]   Medvedeva, M.A., Savin, I.Yu., Bartalev, S.A. and Lupyan, E.A. (2011) NOAA-AVHRR Data Use for Revealing of Many-Years Dynamics of Vegetation in the North Eurasia. Contemporary Problems of Remote Sensing (Sovremennie problemi distantsionnogo zondirovania Zemly iz kosmosa—In Russian), 4, 55-62.

[36]   Schmidt, A., Law, B.E., Hanson, C. and Klemm, O. (2012) Distinct Global Patterns of Strong Positive and Negative Shifts of Seasons over the Last 6 Decades. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 2, 76-88.

[37]   Babst, F., Poulter, B., Trouet, V., Tan, K., Neuwirth, B., Wilson, R., Carrer, M., Grabner, M., Tegel, W., Levanic, T., Panayotov, M., Urbinati, C., Bouriaud, O., Ciais, P. and Frank, D. (2013) Site-and Species-Specific Responses of Forest Growth to Climate across the European Continent. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22, 706-717.

[38]   Buermann, W., Wang, Y., Dong, J., Zhou, L., Zeng, X., Dickinson, R.E., Potter, C.S. and Myneni, R.B. (2002) Analysis of a Multiyear Global Vegetation Leaf Area Index Data Set. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, 4646.

[39]   Ichii, K., Kawabata, A. and Yamaguchi, Y. (2002) Global Correlation Analysis for NDVI and Climatic Variables and NDVI Trends: 1982-1990. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23, 3873-3878.

[40]   Liu, S., Liu, R. and Liu, Y. (2010) Spatial and Temporal Variation of Global LAI during 1981-2006. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 20, 323-332.

[41]   Bowman, D. and Prior, L. (2011) Can Analyses of Continental-Scale Variation in Tree Growth Reveal Effects of Climate Change on Forest Productivity? Geophysical Research Abstracts, 13, EGU2011-1175.

[42]   Bartalev, S., Erchov, D., Isaev, A. and Belward, A. (2003) A New SPOT4-Vegetation Derived Land Cover Map of Northern Eurasia. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 24, 1977-1982.

[43]   McCallum, I., Wagner, W., Schmullius, Ch., Shvidenko, A., Obersteiner, M., Fritz, S. and Nilsson, S. (2009) Satellite-Based Terrestrial Production Efficiency Modelling. Carbon Balance and Management, 4, 8.

[44]   Olusegun, C.F. and Adeyewa, Z.D. (2013) Spatial and Temporal Variation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Rainfall in the North East Arid Zone of Nigeria. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 3, 421-426.

[45]   Lopatin, E., Kolstom, T. and Spiecker, H. (2006) Determination of Forest Growth Trends in Komi Republic (Northwestern Russia): Combination of Tree-Ring Analysis and Remote Sensing Data. Boreal Environment Research, 11, 341-353.

[46]   Beck, P.S.A., Andreu-Hayles, L., D’Arrigo, R., Anchukaitis, K.J., Tucker, C.J., Pinzón, J.E. and Goetz, S.J. (2013) A Large-Scale Coherent Signal of Canopy Status in Maximum Latewood Density of Tree Rings at Arctic Treeline in North America. Global and Planetary Change, 100, 109-118.

[47]   Berner, L., Beck, P., Bunn, A., Lloyd, A. and Goetz, S. (2011) High-Latitude Tree Growth and Satellite Vegetation Indices: Correlations and Trends in Russia and Canada (1982-2008). Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, G01015.

[48]   Bunn, A., Hughes, M., Kirdyanov, A., Losleben, M., Shishov, V., Berner, L.T., Oltchev, A. and Vaganov, E.A. (2013) Comparing Forest Measurements from Tree Rings and a Space-Based Index of Vegetation Activity in Siberia. Environmental Research Letters, 8, Article ID: 035034.

[49]   Chapin, F., Woodwell, G., Randerson, J., Rastetter, E., Lovett, G., et al. (2006) Reconciling Carbon-Cycle Concepts, Terminology, and Methods. Ecosystems, 9, 1041-1050.

[50]   Shishov, V., Vaganov, E., Hughes, M. and Koretz, M. (2002) The Spatial Variability of Tree-Ring Growth in Siberian Regions during the Last Century. Doklady Earth Sciences, 387, 1088-1091.

[51]   Khabarova, O. and Zastenker, G. (2011) Sharp Changes of Solar Wind Ion Flux and Density within and out of Current Sheets. Solar Physics, 270, 311-329.

[52]   Chu, D., Lu, L.X. and Zhang, T.J. (2007) Sensitivity of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to Seasonal and Interannual Climate Conditions in the Lhasa Area, Tibetan Plateau, China. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 39, 635-641.[CHU]2.0.CO;2

[53]   Battles, J.J., Robards, T., Das, A., Waring, K., Gilless, J.K., Biging, G. and Schurr, F. (2008) Climate Change Impacts on Forest Growth and Tree Mortality: A Data-Driven Modelling Study in the Mixed Conifer Forest of the Sierra Nevada, California. Climatic Change, 87, S193-S213.

[54]   Engler, R. and Guisan, A. (2009) MIGCLIM: Predicting Plant Distribution and Dispersal in a Changing Climate. Diversity and Distributions, 15, 590-601.

[55]   Volkov, A. and Ranatunga, D.R. (2006) Plants as Environmental Biosensors. Plant Signaling & Behavior, 1, 105-115.

[56]   Fromm, J. and Lautner, S. (2007) Electrical Signals and Their Physiological Significance in Plants. Plant, Cell and Environment, 30, 249-257.

[57]   Gil, P.M., Gurovich, L., Schaffer, B., Alcayaga, J., Rey, S. and Iturriaga, R. (2008) Root to Leaf Electrical Signaling in Avocado in Response to Light and Soil Water Content. Journal of Plant Physiology, 165, 1070-1078.

[58]   Le Mouёl, J.L., Gibert, D. and Poirier, J.P. (2010) On Transient Electric Potential Variations in a Standing Tree and Atmospheric Electricity. Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 342, 95-99.

[59]   Israelsson, S. and Tammet, H. (2001) Variation of Fair Weather Atmospheric Electricity at Marsta Observatory, Sweden, 1993-1998. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 63, 1693-1703.

[60]   Zhou, H., Diendorfer, G., Thottappillil, R. and Pichler, H. (2011) Fair-Weather Atmospheric Electric Field Measurements at the Gaisberg Mountain in Austria. PIERS ONLINE, 7, 181-185.

[61]   Greathouse, G.A. (1938) Conductivity Measurement of Plant Sap. Plant Physiology, 13, 553-569.

[62]   Gibert, D., Le Mouёl, J.L., Lambs, L., Nicollin, F. and Perrier, F. (2006) Sap Flow and Daily Electric Potential Variations in a Tree Trunk. Plant Science, 171, 572-584.

[63]   Ansari, A.Q. and Bowling, D.J.F. (1972) Measurements of the Trans-Root Electrical Potential of Plants Grown in Soil. New Phytologist, 71, 111-117.

[64]   Himes, C., Carlson, E., Ricchiuti, R.J., Otis, B.P. and Parviz, B.A. (2010) Ultralow Voltage Nanoelectronics Powered Directly, and Solely, from a Tree. IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, 9, 2-5.

[65]   Harrison, R.G. (2013) The Carnegie Curve. Surveys in Geophysics, 34, 209-232.

[66]   Apsen, A.G., Kanonidi, Kh.D., Chernishova, S.P., Chetaev, D.N. and Sheftel, V.M. (1988) Magnetospheric Effects in Atmospheric Electricity. Nauka, Moscow, 150 p.

[67]   Pulinets, S.A., Khegai, V.V., Boyarchuk, K.A. and Lomonosov, A.M. (1998) Atmospheric Electric Field as a Source of Ionospheric Variability. Uspekhi Fizicheskih Nauk, 168, 582-589.

[68]   Huang, C.S., Foster, J.C. and Kelley, M.C. (2005) Long-Duration Penetration of the Interplanetary Electric Field to the Low-Latitude during the Main Phase of Magnetic Storms. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, A11309.

[69]   Love, C.J., Zhang, S. and Mershin, A. (2008) Source of Sustained Voltage Difference between the Xylem of a Potted Ficus benjamina Tree and Its Soil. PLoS ONE, 3, e2963.

[70]   Sastri, J.C.H., Huang, Y.N., Shibata, T. and Okuzawa, T. (1995) Response of Equatorial-Low Latitude Ionosphere to Sudden Expansion of Magnetosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, 22, 2649-2652.

[71]   Shinbori, A., Tsuji, Y., Kikuchi, T., Araki, T., Ikeda, A., Uozumi, T., Baishev, D., Shevtsov, B.M., Nagatsuma, T. and Yumoto, K. (2012) Magnetic Local Time and Latitude Dependence of Amplitude of the Main Impulse (MI) of Geomagnetic Sudden Commencements and Its Seasonal Variation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, A08322.

[72]   Yermolaev, Yu.I., Zelenyi, L.M., Kuznetsov, V.D., Chertok, I.M., Panasyuk, M.I., Myagkova, I.N., Zhitnik, I.A., Kuzin, S.V., Eselevich, V.G., Bogod, V.M., Arkhangelskaja, I.V., Arkhangelsky, A.I. and Kotov, Yu.D. (2008) Magnetic Storm of November, 2004: Solar, Interplanetary, and Magnetospheric Disturbances. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 70, 334-341.

[73]   Vitasse, Y., Delzon, S., Dufrêne, E., Pontailler, J.Y., Louvet, J.M., Kremer, A. and Michalet, R. (2009) Leaf Phenology Sensitivity to Temperature in European Trees: Do Within-Species Populations Exhibit Similar Responses? Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149, 735-744.

[74]   Frank, D. and Esper, J. (2005) Temperature Reconstructions and Comparisons with Instrumental Data from a Tree-Ring Network for the European Alps. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 1437-1454.

[75]   Oberhuber, W., Kofler, W., Pfeifer, K., Seeber, A., Gruber, A. and Wieser, G. (2008) Long-Term Changes in Tree-Ring—Climate Relationships at Mt. Patscherkofel (Tyrol, Austria) since the Mid 1980s. Trees, 22, 31-40.

[76]   Jacoby, G.C. and D’Arrigo, R.D. (1997) Tree Rings, Carbon Dioxide, and Climatic Change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, 8350-8353.

[77]   Franke, J., Frank, D., Raible, Ch.C., Esper, J. and Bronnimann, S. (2013) Spectral Biases in Tree-Ring Climate Proxies. Nature Climate Change, 3, 360-364.