Health  Vol.7 No.4 , April 2015
Effects of Back Massages on Stress Observed in Students Preparing for the National License Examination
ABSTRACT
We measured serum level of cortisol and lactate, the stiffness of trapezius, skin blood flow and VAS before and after the back massages of 25 senior college students, who had sent stressful days for 11 months starting from April, preparing for the national license examination. These students usually had complaints of stiffness of shoulder and/or lumber. Back massages significantly reduced the level of serum cortisol from 8.85 ± 0.78 to 5.95 ± 0.68 μg/dl, without affecting that of lactate. The treatment also improved the stiffness of the trapezius of students with complaints from 63.24 ± 0.78 to 59.12 ± 0.78 after the treatment without affecting skin blood flow (SKBF). In addition, back massages reduced the VAS value at the same time. These results indicate that back massages of the student are effective to improve the physical and psychological conditions of the students.

Cite this paper
Nagata, H. , Ito, Y. , Nakano, M. , Takefu, M. and Akaike, N. (2015) Effects of Back Massages on Stress Observed in Students Preparing for the National License Examination. Health, 7, 430-438. doi: 10.4236/health.2015.74050.
References
[1]   Clinical Laboratory Technician: Practices Prescribed by Article 20-2, Paragraph (1) of the Act on Clinical Laboratory Technicians, etc. (Act No. 76 of 1958).

[2]   Nagata, H., Watada, J., Ito, Y., et al. (2012) Hot Fomentation of the Lower-Back for Stress Relief in Students Preparing for a National Examination of Medical Technologist. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Intelligent Decision Technology, Vol. 2, 13-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-29920-9_2

[3]   Nagata, H., Ito, Y., Akaike, N., et al. (2014) The Effects of Hot Pack Treatment on Chronic Stress for the Patients, Having Stiffness of Shoulder or Lumber Information. Information, 17, 313-319.

[4]   Nagata, H., Ito, Y., Watada, J., et al. (2015) Effects of Hot Pack Treatment on Serum Cortisol and Lactate in Students Preparing for the National License Examination. Methodological Guidelines for the Use of Salivary Cortisol as Biological Marker of Stress. ICIC Express Letters, 6, 1329-1335.

[5]   Nagata, H., Hamamoto A., Ito, Y., et al. (2013) Measurement of Plasma DHEA as a Possible Biomarker for Chronic Stress in Students Preparing for the National License Examination. International Information Institute, 204-207.

[6]   Nagata, H. and Kawarabayasi, T. (1996) Shoulder Massages Effective for Breast Milk Secretion. The Japanese Journal for Midwives, 56, 478-483.

[7]   Nagata, H. and Kawarabayasi, T. (1996) Concurrent Effects of Breast and Shoulder Massages for Breast Feeling. Perinatal Care, 15, 909-915.

[8]   Tanaka, Y. (2012) Biomarkers of Stress and Fatigue. Nihon Rinsho, 70, 880-886.

[9]   Ditzen, B., Neuman, I.D., Bodenmann, G., et al. (2007) Effects of Different Kinds of Couple Interaction on Cortisol and Heart Rate Response to Stress in Women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 565-574.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2007.03.011

[10]   Kirschbaum, C. and Hellhammer, D.H. (1989) Salivary Cortisol in Psychological Research: An Overview. Neuropsychobiology, 22, 150-169.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000118611

[11]   Weibel, L. (2003) Methodological Guidelines for the Use of Salivary Cortisol as Biological Marker of Stress. Presse médicale, 32, 845-851.

[12]   Asanuma, K., Aga, T., Aida, N., et al. (1985) A New Method for Simultaneous Autoanalysis of Plasma Levels of Lactic Acid and Pyruvic Acid by Means of the Oxidase System. The Society of Analytical Bio-Science, 8, 16-24.

[13]   Okuno, H., Takeda, T., Sasaoka, T., Fukuda, F., Ishizaki, N., Kitakoji, H., et al. (2009) Relationship between Katakori (Shoulder Stiffness) and Shoulder Hardness. Zen Nihon Shinkyu Gakkai zasshi (Journal of the Japan Society of Acupuncture and Moxibustion), 59, 30-38.

[14]   Kashima, S., Hashizume, T. and Mitsui, K. (1988) Properties of Laser Blood Flowmeter. The Journal of Japan Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine, 9, 3-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2530/jslsm1980.9.1_3

[15]   Pollard, T.M. (2005) Use of Cortisol as a Stress Marker: Practical and Theoretical Problems. American Journal of Human Biology, 7, 265-274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.1310070217

[16]   Kozlov, A.I. and Kozlova, M.A. (2014) Cortisol as a Marker of Stress. Human Physiology, 40, 224-236.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0362119714020091

[17]   Cirimele, V., Kintz, P., Dumestre, V., Goullé, J.P. and Ludes, B. (2000) Identification of Ten Corticosteroids in Human Hair by Liquid Chromatography-Ionspray Mass Spectrometry. Forensic Science International, 107, 381-388.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0379-0738(99)00180-2

[18]   Kalra, S., Einarson, A., Karaskov, T., Van Uum, S. and Koren, G. (2007) The Relationship between Stress and Hair Cortisol in Healthy Pregnant Women. Clinical Investigative Medicine, 30, E103-E107.

[19]   Hellhammer, D.H., Wust, S. and Kudielka, B.M. (2009) Salivary Cortisol as a Biomarker in Stress Research. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 163-171.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.10.026

[20]   John, S., Verma, S.K. and Khanna, G.L. (2010) The Effects of Music Therapy on Salivary Cortisol as a Reliable Marker of Precompetition Stress in Shooting Performance. Journal of Exercise Science and Physiotherapy, 6, 70-77.

[21]   Westerblad, H., Allen, D.G., Lannergren, J., et al. (2002) Muscle Fatigue: Lactic Acid or Inorganic Phosphate the Major Cause? News in Physiological Science, 17, 17-21.

[22]   Fitts, R.H. (2008) The Cross-Bridge Cycle and Skeletal Muscle Fatigue. Journal of Applied Physiology, 104, 551-558.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01200.2007

[23]   Robergs, R.A., Ghiasvand, F. and Parker, D. (2004) Biochemistry of Exercise-Induced Metabolic Acidosis. AJP: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 287, R502-R516.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00114.2004

[24]   McArdle, W.D., Katch, F. and Katch, L. (2010) Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance. Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Wilkins Health, Philadelphia.

[25]   Phypers, B. and Pierce, J.M.T. (2006) Lactate Physiology in Health and Disease. Continuing Education in Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain, 6, 128-132.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjaceaccp/mkl018

[26]   Cafarelli, E. and Flint, F. (1992) The Role of Massage in Preparation for and Recovery from Exercise. Sports Medicine, 14, 1-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199214010-00001

[27]   Weerapong, P., Hume, P.A. and Kolt, G.S. (2005) The Mechanisms of Massages and Effects on Performance, Muscle Recovery and Injury Prevention. Sports Medicine, 35, 235-256.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535030-00004

[28]   Goats, G.C. (1994) Massage—The Scientific Basis of an Ancient Art: Part 2. Physiological and Therapeutic Effects. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 28, 153-156.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.28.3.153

[29]   Wakim, K.G., Martin, G.M., Terrier, J.C., et al. (1949) The Effects of Massage on Circulation in Normal and Paralyzed Extremities. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 30, 135-144.

[30]   Dubrovski, V.I. (1990) The Effects of Massage on Athlete’s Cardio-Respiratory System. Soviet Sports Review, 25, 36- 38.

[31]   Hansen, T.I. and Kristensen, J.H. (1973) Effects of Massage, Short-Wave Diathermy and Ultrasound upon 133Xe Disappearance Rate from Muscle and Subcutaneous Tissue in the Human Calf. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 5, 179-182.

[32]   Hovind, H. and Nielson, S.L. (1974) Effects of Massage on Blood Flow in Skeletal Muscle. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 6, 74-77.

[33]   Ebel, A. and Wisham, L.H. (1952) Effects of Massage on Muscle Temperature and Radiosodium Clearance. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 33, 399-405.

[34]   Hinds, T., Mcewan, I., Perkes, J., Dawson, E., Ball, D. and George, K. (2004) Effects of Massage on Limb and Skin Blood Flow after Quadriceps Exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 36, 1308-1313.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000135789.47716.DB

[35]   Wiltshire, E.V., Poitras, V., Pak, M., Hong, T., Rayner, J. and Tschakovsky, M.E. (2010) Massage Impairs Postexercise Muscle Blood Flow and “Lactic Acid” Removal. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42, 1062-1071.

[36]   Cliford, P.S., Kluess, H.A., Hamann, J.J., Buckwalter, J.B. and Jasperse, J.L. (2006) Mechanical Compression Elicits Vasodilation in Rat Skeletal Muscle Feed Arteries. The Journal of Physiology, 572, 561-567.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2005.099507

[37]   Kirby, B.S., Carlson, R.E., Markwald, R.R., Voyles, W.F. and Dinenno, F.A. (2007) Mechanical Influences on Skeletal Muscle Vascular Tone in Humans: Insight into Contraction-Induced Rapid Vasodilatation. The Journal of Physiology, 583, 861-874.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2007.131250

[38]   Cliford, P.S. and Tschakovsky, M.E. (2008) Rapid Vascular Responses to Muscle Contraction. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 36, 25-29.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/jes.0b013e31815ddba4

[39]   Kumnerddee, W. (2009) Effectiveness Comparison between Thai Traditional Massage and Chinese Acupuncture for Myofascial Back Pain in Thai Military Personnel: A Preliminary Report. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 92, S117-S123.

[40]   Buttagat, V., Eungpinichpong, W., Chatchawant, U. and Arayawichanon, P. (2012) Therapeutic Effects of Traditional Thai Massage on Pain, Muscle Tension and Anxiety in Patients with Scapulocostal Syndrome: A Randomized Single-Blinded Pilot Study. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 16, 57-63.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2011.04.005

[41]   Charkoudian, N. (2003) Skin Blood Flow in Adult Human Thermoregulation: How It Works, When It Does Not, and Why. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 78, 603-612.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4065/78.5.603

 
 
Top