FNS  Vol.6 No.5 , April 2015
Influence of Carvacrol on the Growth Performance, Hematological, Non-Specific Immune and Serum Biochemistry Parameters in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Abstract: The present study investigated the effects of phytoadditive carvacrol on growth performance, feed utilization, hematological, non-specific immune and serum biochemical parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In trial, 240 rainbow trout which had average weight of 10.79 ± 0.57 was used. Fish were divided into four groups before being fed for 60 days with 0, 1 (C1), 3 (C3) or 5 (C5) g/kg of carvacrol. There were no particular differences in the growth performance, feed utilization, whole body composition, hematological parameters between the experimental group and the control group. However, as compared to control group, a significant increase of serum lysozyme activity was seen in groups receiving feed containing C3 and C5 groups after 30 days. The myeloperoxidase activity in groups (C1 and C3) was significantly higher on the 30th day of sampling. Myeloperoxidase activity of C5 treated group was significantly higher on the 60th day in comparison with the control group. Serum glucose levels significantly decreased on 60th day for C1, C3 and C5 treated groups. The serum total protein, globulin and triglyceride levels of C3 treated groups was significantly higher on the 60th day in comparison with the control and other carvacrol treated groups. The level of serum cholesterol in C5 treated groups was significantly lower on the 30th day in comparison with the control and other carvacrol treated groups. The results of the present study indicated that dietary supplementation of 3 g/kg of carvacrol in commercial diets could improve some non-specific and biochemical status in rainbow trout.
Cite this paper: Yilmaz, E. , Ergün, S. and ilmaz, S. (2015) Influence of Carvacrol on the Growth Performance, Hematological, Non-Specific Immune and Serum Biochemistry Parameters in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 523-531. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.65054.

[1]   Citarasu, T. (2010) Herbal Biomedicines: A New Opportunity for Aquaculture ?ndustry. Aquaculture International, 18, 403-414.

[2]   Conner, D.E. (1993) Naturally Occurring Compounds. In: Davidson, P. and Branen, A.L., Eds., Antimicrobials in Foods, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 441-468.

[3]   Chakrabort, S.B. and Hancz, C. (2011) Application of Phytochemicals as ?mmunostimulant, Antipathogenic and Anti-stress Agents in Finfish Culture. Reviews in Aquaculture, 3, 103-119.

[4]   Y?lmaz, S., Ergün, S. and ?elik, E.?. (2014) Effect of Dietary Spice Supplementations on Welfare Status of Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Biological Sciences, India, 1-9.

[5]   Zheng, Z.L., Tan, J.Y.W., Liu, H.Y., Zhou, X.H., Xiang, X. and Wang, K.Y. (2009) Evaluation of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum heracleoticum L.) on Growth, Antioxidant Effect and Resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Aquaculture, 292, 214-218.

[6]   Ahmadifar, E., Falahatkar, B. and Akrami, R. (2011) Effects of Dietary Thymol-Carvacrol on Growth Performance, Hematological Parameters and Tissue Composition of Juvenile Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 27, 1057-1060.

[7]   Volpatti, D., Chiara, B., Francesca, T. and Marco, G. (2012) Growth Parameters, Innate Immune Response and Resistance to Listonella (Vibrio) anguillarum of Dicentrarchus labrax Fed Carvacrol Supplemented Diets. Aquaculture Research, 45, 31-44.

[8]   Rattanachaikunsopon, P. and Phumkhachorn, P. (2010) Assessment of Synergistic Efficacy of Carvacrol and Cymene against Edwardsiella tarda in Vitro and in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). African Journal of Microbiology Research, 4, 420-425.

[9]   Giannenas, I., Triantafillou, E., Stavrakakis, S., Margaroni, M., Mavridis, S., Steiner, T. and Karagouni, E. (2012) Assessment of Dietary Supplementation with Carvacrol or Thymol Containing Feed Additives on Performance, Intestinal Microbiota and Antioxidant Status of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 350, 26-32.

[10]   AOAC (1998) Official Methods of Analysis. AOAC, Arlington.

[11]   Folch, J., Lees, M. and Sloane-Stanley, G.H. (1957) A Simple Method for the ?solation and Purification of Total Lipides from Animal Tissues. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226, 497-509.

[12]   Smith, C., Shaw, B., Handy, R.D. (2007) Toxicity of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes to Rainbow Trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Respiratory Toxicity, Organ Pathologies, and Other Physiological Effects. Aquatic Toxicology, 82, 94- 109.

[13]   Val, A.L., De Menezes, G.C. and Wood, C.M. (1998) Red Blood Cell Adrenergic Responses in Amazonian Teleost. Journal of Fish Biology, 52, 83-93.

[14]   Bricknell, I.R., Bowden, T.J., Bruno, D.W., MacLachlan, P., Johnstone, R. and Ellis, A.E. (1999) Susceptibility of Atlantic Halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L.) to ?nfection with Typical and Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida. Aquaculture, 175, 1-13.

[15]   Blaxhall, P.C. and Daisley, K.W. (1973) Routine Haematological Methods for Use with Fish Blood. Journal of Fish Biology, 5, 771-781.

[16]   Lee, R.G., Foerster, J., Jukens, J., Paraskevas, F., Greer, J.P. and Rodgers, G.M. (1998) Wintrobe’s Clinical Hematology. 10th Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, New York.

[17]   Bain, B.J., Lewis, S.M. and Bates, I. (2006) Basic Haematological Techniques. In: Lewis, S.M., Bain, B.J. and Bates, I., Eds., Dacie and Lewis Practical Haematology, 10th Edition, Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, Philadelphia, 26-54.

[18]   Quade, M.J., Roth, J.A. and Rapid, A. (1997) A Rapid, Direct Assay to Measure Degranulation of Bovine Neutrophil Primary Granules. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 58, 239-248.

[19]   Ellis, A.E. (1990) Lysozyme Assays. In: Stolen, J.S., Fletcher, T.C., Anderson, D.P., Roberson, B.S. and van Muiswinkel, W.B., Eds., SOS Publications, Fair Haven, 101-103.

[20]   Campbell, T.W. (2004) Clinical Chemistry of Fish and Amphibians. In: Thrall, M.A., Baker, D.C., Campbell, T.W., DeNicola, D., Fettman, M.J., Lassen, E.D., Rebar, A. and Weiser, G., Eds., Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Pennsylvania, 499-517.

[21]   Ba?usta, G.A. (2005) Fish Hematology and Hematological Techniques. In: Karatas, M., Ed., Research Techniques in Fish Biology (in Turkish), Nobel Publications, Ankara, 275-300.

[22]   Klebanoff, S.J. (1992) Oxygen Metabolites from Phagocytes. In: Gallin, I.M., Goldstein, J.I. and Snyderman, M.D., Eds., Inflammation: Basic Principles and Clinical Correlates, Raven Press, New York, 391-444.

[23]   Siwicki, A.K. and Anderson, D.P. (1993) Nonspecific Defence Mechanisms Assay in Fish: I. Phagocytic Index, Adherence and Phagocytic Ability of Neutrophils (NBT Test) and Myeloperoxidase Activity Test. In: Siwicki, A.K., Anderson, D.P. and Waluga, J., Disease Diagnosis and Prevention Methods, FAO-Project GCP/INT/JPA, IFI, Olsztyn, 95-104.

[24]   Siwicki, A.K. and Anderson, D.P. (1993) Nonspecific Defence Mechanisms Assay in Fish: II. Potential Killing Activity of Neutrophils and Macrophages, Lysozyme Activity in Serum and Organs. In: Siwicki, A.K., Anderson, D.P. and Waluga, J., Eds., Disease Diagnosis and Prevention Methods, FAO-Project GCP/INT/526/JPN, IFI, Olsztyn, 105-111.

[25]   Anderson, D.P. (1992) Immunostimulants, Adjuvants, and Vaccine Carriers in Fish: Applications to Aquaculture. Annual Review of Fish Diseases, 2, 281-307.

[26]   Ortuno, J., Esteban, M.A. and Meseguer, J. (1999) Effect of High Dietary ?ntake of Vitamin C on Nonspecific ?mmune Response of Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 9, 429-443.

[27]   Christybapita, D., Divyagnaneswari, M. and Dinakaran, M.R. (2007) Oral Administration of Eclipta alba Leaf Aqueous Extract Enhances the Non-Specific Immune Responses and Disease Resistance of Oreochromis mossambicus. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 23, 840-852.

[28]   Heath, A.G. (1995) Water Pollution and Fish Physiology. CRC Lewis Publishers, London.

[29]   Deng, W., Lu, H. and Teng, J. (2013) Carvacrol Attenuates Diabetes-Associated Cognitive Deficits in Rats. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 51, 813-819.

[30]   Wiegertjes, G.F., Stet, R.J., Parmentier, H.K. and Van Muiswinkel, W.B. (1996) Immunogenetics of Disease Resistance in Fish: A Comparative Approach. Developmental & Comparative Immunology, 20, 365-381.

[31]   McDonald, D.G. and Milligan, C.L. (1992) Chemical Properties of the Blood. In: Hoar, W.S., Randall, D.J. and Farrell, A.P., Eds., Fish Physiology, Volume 12, Part B: The Cardiovascular System, Academic Press, San Diego, 56-113.