Back
 CN  Vol.7 No.2 , May 2015
FMAC: Fair Mac Protocol for Achieving Proportional Fairness in Multi-Rate WSNs
Abstract: In a multi-rate wireless environment, slow nodes occupy the channel for longer time than fast nodes and thus the total throughput of the network will be reduced. In this research, we study the problem of fairness in multi-rate wireless sensor networks. To improve the fairness, we propose a new protocol, FMAC (Fair MAC protocol) that is based on IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol to achieve proportional fairness between all nodes. FMAC protocol includes medium delay periods within Backoff algorithm to utilize the idle slots of time and reduce the number of collisions and then number of retransmissions, and thus reducing the energy consumption, which is very critical in wireless sensor networks. The experimental results show that transmissions become faster with less collisions and power consumption when applying FMAC, while the aggregated throughput and proportional fairness are increased. The detailed performance evaluation and comparisons are provided using the simulation.
Cite this paper: M. Al-Ratta, N. , Al-Rodhaan, M. and Al-Dhelaan, A. (2015) FMAC: Fair Mac Protocol for Achieving Proportional Fairness in Multi-Rate WSNs. Communications and Network, 7, 89-105. doi: 10.4236/cn.2015.72009.
References

[1]   Xu, N. (2002) A Survey of Sensor Network Applications. IEEE Communications Magazine, 40, 102-114.

[2]   Corke, P., Wark, T., Jurdak, R., Wen, H., Valencia, P. and Moore, D. (2010) Environmental Wireless Sensor Networks. Proceedings of the IEEE, 98, 1903-1917.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2010.2068530

[3]   Wang, Z.Q., Yu, F.Q., Tao, L.Q. and Zhang, Z.S. (2011) A Fairness Spatial TDMA Scheduling Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network. 12th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies (PDCAT), Gwangju, 20-22 October 2011, 348-353.

[4]   Sridharan, A. and Krishnamachari, B. (2007) Maximizing Network Utilization with Max-Min Fairness in Wireless Sensor Networks. 5th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc and Wireless Networks and Workshops, Limassol, 16-20 April 2007, 1-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/WIOPT.2007.4480030

[5]   Pei, H., Li, X., Soltani, S., Mutka, M.W. and Ning, X. (2013) The Evolution of MAC Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 15, 101-120.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SURV.2012.040412.00105

[6]   Kumar, B., Yadav, R.K. and Challa, R.K. (2010) Comprehensive Performance Analysis of MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks. International Conference on Computer and Communication Technology (ICCCT), Allahabad, 17-19 September 2010, 342-347.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICCCT.2010.5640504

[7]   Patil, U.A., Modi, S.V. and Suma, B. (2013) Analysis and Implementation of IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Tec-hnology (IJESIT), 2, 278-284.

[8]   Singh, U.K., Phuleriya, K.C. and Laddhani, L. (2012) Study and Analysis of MAC Protocols Design Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, 2, 79-83.

[9]   Duda, A. (2008) Understanding the Performance of 802.11 Networks. 19th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Cannes, 15-18 September 2008, 1-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PIMRC.2008.4699942

[10]   Kabara, J. and Calle, M. (2012) MAC Protocols Used by Wireless Sensor Networks and a General Method of Performance Evaluation. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 2012, Article ID: 834784. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/834784

[11]   Jain, S. and Mahajan, R. (2000) Wireless LAN MAC Protocols.

[12]   Nadeem, T. and Ashok, A. (2005) Performance of IEEE 802.11 Based Wireless Sensor Networks in Noisy Environments. 24th IEEE International Conference on Performance, Computing, and Communications, Phoenix, 7-9 April 2005, 471-476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PCCC.2005.1460615

[13]   Zhai, H.Q., Kwon, Y. and Fang, Y.G. (2004) Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocols in Wireless LANs. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, 4, 917-931.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wcm.263

[14]   Bononi, L., Conti, M. and Gregori, E. (2000) Design and Performance Evaluation of an Asymptotically Optimal Backoff Algorithm for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Maui, 4-7 January 2000, 10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2000.926987

[15]   Khalaj, A., Yazdani, N. and Rahgozar, M. (2007) Effect of the Contention Window Size on Performance and Fairness of the IEEE 802.11 Standard. Wireless Personal Communications, 43, 1267-1278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11277-007-9300-5

[16]   Weinmiller, J., Woesner, H. and Wolisz, A. (1996) Analyzing and Improving the IEEE 802.11-MAC Protocol for Wireless LANs. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, MASCOTS’96, San Jose, 1-3 February 1996, 200-206.

[17]   Chen, S. and Zhang, Z. (2006) Localized Algorithm for Aggregate Fairness in Wireless Sensor Networks. Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, Los Angeles, 24-29 September 2006, 274-285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1161089.1161121

[18]   Wu, J.H. and Luo, J. (2012) Research on Multi-Rate in Wireless Sensor Network Based on Real Platform. 2nd International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks (CECNet), Yichang, 21-23 April 2012, 1240-1243.

[19]   Yang, T., Kulla, E., Oda, T., Barolli, L., Younas, M. and Takizawa, M. (2012) Performance Evaluation of WSNs Considering MAC and Routing Protocols Using Goodput and Delay Metrics. 15th International Conference on Network- Based Information Systems (NBiS), Melbourne, 26-28 September 2012, 341-348.

[20]   Jiang, L.B. and Liew, S.C. (2005) Proportional Fairness in Wireless LANs and Ad Hoc Networks. IEEE Wireless Communications and Network Conference (WCNC), 3, 1551-1556.

[21]   Li, L., Pal, M. and Yang, Y.R. (2008) Proportional Fairness in Multi-Rate Wireless LANs. IEEE INFOCOM 2008, The 27th Conference on Computer Communications, Phoenix, 13-18 April 2008, 1004-1012.

[22]   Chen, B.B. and Chan M.C. (2006) Proportional Fairness for Overlapping Cells in Wireless Networks. IEEE 64th Vehicular Technology Conference, Montreal, 25-28 September 2006, 1-5.

[23]   Narayanan, S., Jun, J.H., Pandit, V. and Agrawal, D.P. (2011) Proportionally Fair Rate Allocation in Regular Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops, Shanghai, 10-15 April 2011, 549-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/INFCOMW.2011.5928874

[24]   Chen, Y.F., Li, M.C., Wand, L., Yuan, Z.X., Sun, W.P., Zhu, C.S., Zhu, M. and Shu, L. (2009) A Proportional Fair Backoff Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE 6th International Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems, Macau, 12-15 October 2009, 971-976.

[25]   Chen, Y.F., Li, M.C., Shu, L., Wang, L. and Hara, T. (2012) A Proportional Fairness Backoff Scheme for Funnelling Effect in Wireless Sensor Networks. Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, 23, 585-597. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ett.2516

[26]   Chakraborty, S., Swain, P. and Nandi, S. (2013) Proportional Fairness in MAC Layer Channel Access of IEEE 802.11s EDCA Based Wireless Mesh Networks. Ad Hoc Networks, 11, 570-584.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2012.08.003

[27]   Khan, B.M., Ali, F.H. and Stipidis, E. (2010) Improved Backoff Algorithm for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks. 2010 IFIP, Wireless Days (WD), Venice, 20-22 October 2010, 1-5.

[28]   Akan, O.B. and Akyildiz, I.F. (2005) Event-to-Sink Reliable Transport in Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 13, 1003-1016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNET.2005.857076

[29]   Jagadeesha, R. and Alfandi, O. (2013) Implementation of WSN Protocol on a Heterogeneous Hardware. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 8, 521-539.

[30]   Zhu, N.H., Du, W., Navarro, D., Mieyeville, F. and Connor, I.O. (2011) High Data Rate Wireless Sensor Networks Research. Proceedings of 14ème Journées Nationales du Réseau Doctoral de Micro et Nanoélectronique (JNRDM 2011), Paris, 23-25 May 2011.

[31]   Zhu, N.H. and O’Connor, I. (2013) Performance Evaluations of Unslotted CSMA/CA Algorithm at High Data Rate WSNs Scenario. 9th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), Sardinia, 1-5 July 2013, 406-411.

[32]   Kohvakka, M., Arpinen, T., Hännikäinen, M. and Hämäläinen, T.D. (2006) High-Performance Multi-Radio WSN Platform. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks: From Theory to Reality, Florence, 26 May 2006, 95-97.

[33]   Nithya, B., Mala, C. and KumarB, V. (2012) Simulation and Performance Analysis of Various IEEE 802.11 Backoff Algorithms. Procedia Technology, 6, 840-847.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.protcy.2012.10.102

[34]   Bin Sediq, A., Gohary, R.H. and Yanikomeroglu, H. (2012) Optimal Tradeoff between Efficiency and Jain’s Fairness Index in Resource Allocation. IEEE 23rd International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Sydney, 9-12 September 2012, 577-583.

[35]   Jain, R., Chiu, D.-M. and Hawe, W.R. (1984) A Quantitative Measure of Fairness and Discrimination for Resource Allocation in Shared Computer System: Eastern Research Laboratory. Digital Equipment Corporation.

 
 
Top