Purpose: To investigate the relationship between preterm delivery and
developmental outcomes in children born at 34 - 36 weeks of gestation (late preterm
period). Methods: This study reviewed the cases of singleton late preterm
children and full-term (38 - 40 weeks of gestation) children born at Showa
University Hospital. The developmental outcomes at 3 years of age were assessed
based on the results of questionnaires sent to the families by mail. In
addition, the incidence of developmental delays was compared between the late
preterm and full-term children. In the full-term control group, perinatal
characteristics (neonatal gender, Apgar score, Cesarean delivery, birth weight
< 10th percentile, birth weight < 3rd percentile) were matched with those
of the late preterm cases. We compared categorical variables using Fisher’s
exact test. For variables with a non-normal distribution, Welch’s t-test was applied. A p-value of <0.05 was
considered to be statistically significant. Results: The rate of return of the
questionnaires was 25.9% (121) among the cases and 25.8% (163) among the
controls. The frequency of developmental delays was 6.6% among the cases, compared
with 4.3% among the controls. Conclusions: Matching the perinatal
characteristics of the subjects, the frequency of developmental delays was
similar between the two groups.
Cite this paper
Oba, T. , Hasegawa, J. , Otsuki, K. , Itabashi, K. , Okai, T. and Sekizawa, A. (2015) Effects of Late Preterm Birth on the Incidence of Developmental Delays among Children at 3 Years of Age: A Matched-Pair Case-Control Study. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
, 203-207. doi: 10.4236/ojog.2015.54029
 Petrini, J.R., Dias, T., McCormick, M.C., Massolo, M.L., Green, N.S. and Escobar, G.J. (2009) Increased Risk of Adverse Neurological Development for Late Preterm Infants. The Journal of Pediatrics, 154, 169-176.e3.
 Chyi, L.J., Lee, H.C., Hintz, S.R., Gould, J.B. and Sutcliffe, T.L. (2008) School Outcomes of Late Preterm Infants: Special Needs and Challenges for Infants Born at 32 to 36 Weeks Gestation. The Journal of Pediatrics, 153, 25-31.
 Morse, S.B., Zheng, H., Tang, Y.W. and Roth, J. (2009) Early School-Age Outcomes of Late Preterm Infants. Pediatrics, 123, e622-e629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-1405
 Kapellou, O., Counsell, S.J., Kennea, N., Dyet, L., Saeed, N., Stark, J., et al. (2006) Abnormal Cortical Development after Premature Birth Shown by Altered Allometric Scaling of Brain Growth. PLoS Medicine, 3, e265.
 Guihard-Costa, A.M. and Larroche, J.C. (1990) Differential Growth between the Fetal Brain and Its Infratentorial Part. Early Human Development, 23, 27-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3782(90)90126-4
 Lundgren, E.M. and Tuvemo, T. (2008) Effects of Being Born Small for Gestational Age on Long-Term Intellectual Performance. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 22, 477-488.
 Bergvall, N., Iliadou, A., Johansson, S., Tuvemo, T. and Cnattingius, S. (2006) Risks for Low Intellectual Performance Related to Being Born Small for Gestational Age Are Modified by Gestational Age. Pediatrics, 117, e460-e467.
 Stuart, A., Otterblad Olausson, P. and K?llen, K. (2011) Apgar Score at 5 min after Birth in Relation to School Performance at 16 Years of Age. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 118, 201-208.