JEP  Vol.6 No.4 , April 2015
Study on Phosphorus Characteristics in Sediments of Xiangxi Bay, China Three-Gorge Reservoir
Abstract: To explore the environment influence of the sediments in Xiangxi Bay (China Three-Gorge Reservoir), spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of total phosphorus (TP), phosphorus fractions, dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) of pore water and overlying water in the sediments were investigated. In surveys, the sampling was undertaken from six sites of Xiangxi Bay on 29 March 2009 and 28 March 2010. TP contents ranged from 1111.29 mg/kg to 1941.29 mg/kg with the mean value of 1533.09 mg/kg in 2009 spring and 1600.48 mg/kg in 2010 spring. Five fractions of sedimentary phosphorus, including loosely sorbed phosphorus (NH4Cl-P), redox-sensitive phosphorus (BD-P), metal oxide bound phosphorus (NaOH-P), calcium bound phosphorus (HCl-P), and residual phosphorus (Res-P), were separately quantified. DTP of pore water and overlying water all have positive correlations with NH4Cl-P and BD-P, which indicated that NH4Cl-P and BD-P were the main fractions that can easily release phosphorus in the sediments of Xiangxi Bay.
Cite this paper: Luo, H. , Liu, D. and Huang, Y. (2015) Study on Phosphorus Characteristics in Sediments of Xiangxi Bay, China Three-Gorge Reservoir. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 281-289. doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.64028.

[1]   Lijklema, L., Koelmans, A.A. and Portielje, R. (1993) Water Quality Impacts of Sediment Pollution and the Role of Early Diagenesis. Water Science and Technology, 28, 1-12.

[2]   Ramm, K. and Scheps, V. (1997) Phosphorus Balance of a Polytrophic Shallow Lake with the Consideration of Phosphorus Release. Hydrobiologia, 343, 43-53.

[3]   Zhou, Q., Gibson, C.E. and Zhu, Y. (2001) Evaluation of Phosphorus Bioavailability in Sediments of Three Contrasting Lakes in China and the UK. Chemosphere, 42, 221-225.

[4]   Stumm, W. and Morgan, J. J. (1996) Aquatic Chemistry. 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

[5]   Furumai, H., Kondo, T. and Ohgaki, S. (1989) Phosphorus Exchange Kinetics and Exchangeable Phosphorus Forms in Sediments. Water Research, 23, 685-691.

[6]   Stimson, J. and larned, S.T. (2000) Nitrogen Efflux from the Sediments of a Subtropical Bay and the Potential Contribution to Macroalgal Nutrient Requirements. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 252, 159-180.

[7]   Lu, X.X., Song, J.M., Li, X.G., Yuan, H.M., Zhan, T.R., Li, N. and Gao, X.L. (2005) Geochemical Characteristics of Nitrogen in the Southern Yellow Sea Surface Sediments. Journal of Marine Systems, 56, 17-27.

[8]   Steinman, A., Chu, X.F. and Ogdahl, M. (2009) Spatial and Temporal Variability of Internal and External Phosphorus Loads in Mona Lake, Michigan. Aquatic Ecology, 43, 1-18.

[9]   Wu, J.G., Huang, J.H., Han, X.G., Xie, Z.Q. and Gao, X.M. (2003) Three-Gorge Dam—Experiment in Habitat Fragmentation? Science, 300, 1239-1240.

[10]   Ye, L., Li, D.F., Tang, T., Qu, X.D. and Cai, Q.H. (2003) Spatial Distribution of Water Quality in Xiangxi River, China. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 14, 1959-1962.

[11]   Tang, T., Li, D.F., Pan, W.B., Qu, X.D. and Cai, Q.H. (2004) River Continuum Characteristics of Xiangxi River. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 15, 141-144.

[12]   Wang, H.Y. (2005) Effects of the Three Gorges Reservoir on the Water Environment of the Xiangxi River with the Proposal of Countermeasures. Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin, 14, 233-237.

[13]   Luo, H.J., Liu, D.F., Ji, D.B., Huang, Y.L. and Huang, Y.P. (2009) Influence Factors Analysis to Chlorophyll a of Spring Algal Bloom in Xiangxi Bay of Three Gorges Reservoir. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 3, 188-194.

[14]   Yang, Z.J., Liu, D.F., Ji, D.B. and Xiao, S.B. (2010) Influence of the Impounding Process of the Three Gorges Reservoir up to Water Level 172.5 m on Water Eutrophication in the Xiangxi Bay. Science China Technological Sciences, 53, 1114-1125.

[15]   Dai, H.C., Zheng, T.G. and liu, D.F. (2010) Effects of Reservoir Impounding on Key Ecological Factors in the Three Gorges Region. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 2, 15-24.

[16]   Wang, L., Cai, Q.H., Tan, L. and Kong, L.H. (2011) Phytoplankton Development and Ecological Status during a Cyanobacterial Bloom in a Tributary Bay of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Science of the Total Environment, 409, 3820-3828.

[17]   Murphy, J. and Riley, J.P. (1962) A Modified Single Solution Method for the Determination of Phosphate in Natural Water. Analytica Chimica Acta, 27, 31-36.

[18]   Psenner, R., Bostrom, B. and Dinka, M. (1988) Fractionation of Phosphorus in Suspended Matter and Sediments. Archiv Hydrobiol Beih Ergeb Limnol, 30, 98-109.

[19]   Hupfer, M., Gachter, R. and Giovanoli, R. (1995) Transformation of Phosphorus Species in Settling Seston and during Early Sediment Diagenesis. Aquatic Science, 57, 305-324.

[20]   Kaiserli, A., Voutsa, D. and Samara, C. (2002) Phosphorus Fractionation in Lake Sediments—Lakes Volvi and Koronia, N. Greece. Chemosphere, 46, 1147-1155.

[21]   Rydin, E. (2000) Potentially Mobile Phosphorus in Lake Erken Sediment. Water Research, 34, 2037-2042.

[22]   Kozerski, H. and Kleeberg, A. (1998) The Sediments and the Benthic Pelagic Exchange in the Shallow Lake Muggelsee. International Review of Hydrobiology, 83, 77-112.

[23]   Kleeberg, A. and Kozerski, H. (1997) Phosphorus Release in Lake Groβer Müggelsee and Its Implications for Lake Restoration. Hydrobiologia, 342-343, 9-26.

[24]   Ting, D.S. and Appan, A. (1996) General Characteristics and Fractions of Phosphorus in Aquatic Sediments of Two Tropical Reservoirs. Water Science and Technology, 34, 53-59.

[25]   Zhou, Q., Gibson, C.E. and Zhu, Y. (2001) Evaluation of Phosphorus Bioavailability in Sediments of Three Contrasting Lakes in China and the UK. Chemosphere, 42, 221-225.

[26]   Gonsiorezyk, T., Casper, P. and Koschel, R. (1998) Phosphorus-Binding Forms in the Sediment of an Oligotrophic and an Eutrophic Hardwater Lake of the Baltic Lake District (Germany). Water Science and Technology, 37, 51-58.