Back
 AJAC  Vol.6 No.5 , April 2015
The Application of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Gold Determination in Some of Its Bearing Rocks
Abstract: A developed method was designed for gold determination directly in organic medium in some sedimentary rocks (fine sandstone, carbonates), pyrite, serpentine and international standard gold sample (MA-1a) using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). Instrumental parameters; burner angle, fuel flow rate, band pass and burner height together with chemical parameters; different media, leaching and interference effect were optimized to improve gold determination. Selective leaching using a new mixture (5% KCN, 5% Na2S2O3 and hydrogen peroxide) offered maximum leaching percentage of gold (>99%) with minimal concentration of accompanying elements. Extraction parameters using methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) from 3 M HCl were optimized for more than 99% gold extraction, followed by scrubbing using 0.1 M HCl. Gold was determined directly in organic phase. Beer’s law was obeyed from 0.01 μg/ml to 10 μg/ml. Standard deviation (from 0.017 to 1.05) and percentage error (from 1.5% to 2.5%) using the present developed AAS method were calculated.
Cite this paper: Fouad, H. , Elrakaiby, R. and Hashim, M. (2015) The Application of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Gold Determination in Some of Its Bearing Rocks. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 6, 411-421. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2015.65040.
References

[1]   Urucu, O.A., Yurtman, Z. and Kok Ye Timozlu, E. (2013) Cloud Point Preconcentration of Gold (III) and Determination by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 20, 106-110.

[2]   Ramesh, S.L., Sunder Raju, P.V., Anjaiah, K.V., Ramavathi, M., Gnaneswara, R., Dasaram, B., Nirmal Charan, S., Suba Rao, D.V., Sarma, D.S., Ram Mohan, M. and Balaram, V. (2001) Determination of Gold in Rocks, Ores, and Other Geological Materials by Atomic Absorption Techniques. Atomic Spectroscopy, 22, 263-269.

[3]   Knorre, H., Loroeseh, S.J., Steinheim H., Hanau, S.G., Stoll, M., Marjoss, S. and Ziegler, A. (1993) Process for Leaching Precious Metals with Hydrogen Peroxide. US Patent No. 5250272.

[4]   Van Loon, J.C. and Barefoot, R.R. (1991) Determination of Precious Metals-Selected Instrumental Methods. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

[5]   Greeonewald, T. (1969) Quantitative Determination of Gold in Solution by Solvent Extraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 41, 1012-1015.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac60277a036

[6]   Rubeska, I., Thomas, V.A., Baby, J.V. and Thomas, O.J. (1980) Interim Report CH-5 Mineral Exploration and Development in Kerala. UN Assisted Project, Trivandrum, 1-12.

[7]   Tewari, R.K., Tarsekar, V.K. and Lokhande, M.B. (1990) Determination of Gold in Geological Materials by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry at ppm and sub-ppm Levels by Coprecipitation with Mercury. Atomic Spectroscopy, 11, 125.

[8]   Benedetti, M.F., Dekersabiec A.M. and Boulegue, J. (1987) Determination of Gold in Twenty Geochemical Reference Samples by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Geostand Newsletters, 11,127.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-908X.1987.tb00016.x

[9]   Yan, M., Wang, C., Cao, Q.X., Gu, T.X. and Chi, Q.H. (1995) Eleven Gold Geochemical Reference Samples (GAU 8-18). Geostand Newsletters, 19, 125-133.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-908X.1995.tb00157.x

[10]   Balaram, V. and Anjaiah, K.V. (1997) Direct Estimation of Gold in Geological Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Indian Chemical Society, 74, 581-583.

[11]   Barefoot, R.R. (1998) Determination of Precious Metals in Geological Materials by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 13, 1077-1084.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/a803216e

[12]   Elson, O.M. and Chatt, A. (1983) Determination of Gold in Silicate Rocks and Ores by Coprecipitation with Tellurium and Neutron Activation—γ-Spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 155, 305-310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(00)85610-X

[13]   Manikyamba, C., Naqvi, S.M. and Saw-kar, R.H. (1997) Identification of Sandur Schist Belt as a Potential Gold Field. Current Science, 72, 515-518.

[14]   Tindall, F.M. (1965) Silver and Gold Assay by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry: Perkin-Elmer Atomic Absorption. Atomic Absorption Newsletters, 4, 339-340.

[15]   Tindall, F.M. (1966) Notes on Silver and Gold Assay by Atomic Absorption. Atomic Absorption Newsletters, 5, 140.

[16]   Elmer, P. (1990) Analytical Methods for Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. GC-6.

[17]   Sporea, A., Radulescu, R. and Petrescu, S. (2001) Determination of the Content of Gold and Silver in Geological Samples. Journal of Serbian Chemical Society, 66, 45-52.

[18]   Ritcey, G.M. and Ashbrook, W.A. (1979) Solvent Extraction-Part II. Amsterdam, Elsevier.

[19]   Wilkinson, W.D. (1962) Uranium Metallurgy Vol. II, Ch. 7. Interscience Publishers, New York.

[20]   Stafilov, T. and Todorovski, T. (1987) Determination of Gold in Arsenic-Antimony Ore by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Atomic Spectroscopy, 8, 12-14.

[21]   Pohl, P. and Zyrnicki, W. (2001) Study of Chemical Vapors Generation of Au, Pd and Pt by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 16, 1442-1445.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b105298p

[22]   Elsaied, F.A., Farag, N.M., Fouad, H.K. and Shalaby, Z.M. (2009) Development of the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic Method for Beryllium Determination. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 5, 499-504.

[23]   Petrovic, N., Budelan, D., Cokic, S. and Nesic, B. (2001) The Determination of the Content of Gold and Silver in Geological Samples. Journal of Serbian Chemical Society, 66, 45.

[24]   Sparrow, G.J. and Woodcock, J.T. (1995) Cyanide and Other Lixiviant Leaching Systems for Gold with some Practical Applications. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Reviews: An International Journal, 14, 193-247.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08827509508914125

[25]   Pyrzynska, K. (2005) Recent Developments in Determination of Gold by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Techniques. Spectrochimica Acta Part B, 60, 1316-1322.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sab.2005.06.010

[26]   Strong, B. and Murray-Smith, R. (1974) Determination of Gold in Copper Bearing Sulphide Ores and Metallurgical Flotation Products by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Talanta, 21, 1253-1258.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0039-9140(74)80146-3

[27]   Shoemaker, R.S. (1990) Refractory Gold Ore Processing. Proceedings of Advances in Gold and Silver, Reno, 10-12 September 1990, 113-118.

[28]   James, G.S. (1973) Optima. Anglo American Corporation Quarterly Review, 23, 99.

[29]   Fishkova, N.L., Falkova, O.B. and Meshalkina R.D. (1972) Atomic-Absorption Determination of Gold in Ores and Estimation of Effect of Homogeneity of Its Distribution in Samples on Analysis Result. Journal of Analytical Chemistry, USSR, 27, 174.

[30]   Almeida, M.F. (2001) Leaching of a Gold Bearing Partially Roasted Sulphide. Laboratory Scale Studies. Materials Research, 4, 305-314.

[31]   Diamantatos, A. (1981) A Solvent-Extraction Scheme for the Determination of Platinum, Palladium, Rhodium, Iridium and Gold in Platiniferous Materials. Analytica Chimica Acta, 131, 53-62.

[32]   Yokoyama, T., Yokota, T., Hayashi, S. and Izawa, E. (1996) Determination of Gold in Rock Samples by a Combination of Two-Stage Solvent Extraction and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry: The Problem of Iron Interference and Its Solution. Geochemical Journal, 30, 175-181.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2343/geochemj.30.175

[33]   Pyrzynska, K. (2005) Recent Developments in Determination of Gold by Atomic Absorption Techniques. Spectrochimica Acta Part B, 60, 1316-1322.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sab.2005.06.010

 
 
Top