JSSM  Vol.8 No.2 , April 2015
Effect of Transport Time of up to 12 Hours on Welfare of Cows and Bulls
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of transport time up to 12 h on welfare of bulls and cows. Cattle transport vehicle was used for the experiment. Sensors to measure temperature, relative humidity and video camera to monitor behaviour were mounted in observation pen. Eighteen measurements were performed during summer and winter for 4, 8, and 12 h transport time with three replications. To determine cortisol, glucose, lactate, and creatine kinase concentrations, blood samples were collected before and after transport from 80 bulls, 82 cows and 20 control animals. Cortisol concentration was generally inversely proportional to transport time (P < 0.001). Glucose concentration for cows was the highest at 12 h and the lowest at 8 h and for bulls it increased with transport time (P < 0.002). Lactate level generally correlated with transport time (P < 0.001), but for bulls the highest and the lowest were at 8 and 4 h in winter. Creatine kinase concentration positively correlated with transport time for bulls and cows but at different rates. Loss of balance and swaying strongly correlated with transport time (P < 0.002). Based on behaviour, stress hormones and pH values, an increase from 4 to 8 h had a higher effect than from 8 to 12 h transport time on welfare and subsequent meat quality.
Cite this paper: Bulitta, F. , Aradom, S. and Gebresenbet, G. (2015) Effect of Transport Time of up to 12 Hours on Welfare of Cows and Bulls. Journal of Service Science and Management, 8, 161-182. doi: 10.4236/jssm.2015.82019.

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