OJN  Vol.5 No.3 , March 2015
Patients’ Experiences of Trust in the Patient-Nurse Relationship—A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies
ABSTRACT
Aims and Objectives: To report a synthesis of the literature on the meaning of trust in the context of patients’ experiences of nursing. The review question was “How do patients describe the meaning of trust in the nursing relationship?” Background: Trust is essential in nursing as it has the potential to create opportunities for the human being to gain faith, hope and meaning in life as well as open up for new experiences. Trust is an interpersonal and essential element of all patient-nurse relationships and requires nurses to create a trusting relationship with the patients. Design: Systematic qualitative literature review. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted for the period January 2002 to December 2012, updated in January 2014. 20 papers were included. Results: Four categories emerged: Attitudes related to trust, indicating that trust is fundamental and existential; Experiences of trust, concerning how trust can be sensed; The patient-nurse relationship, revealing the qualities of the person who creates trust; and Where trust occurs, illuminating the contextual relevancies of trust. Conclusions: Patients’ experiences of trust in nursing are dependent on the nurses’ knowledge, level of commitment in the dialogue to creating and developing the relationship and contextual issues. Implications for nursing practice: Reflection on a trusting relationship with the patient is necessary for a deeper conceptual understanding of trust in nursing. Clinical nurse researchers nurse supervisors, managers and nurse educatorsshould discuss different areas of trust during nursing supervision and focus-group meetings as well as with nursing graduates to ensure that nurses develop knowledge of how to create a trusting patient-nurse relationship.

Cite this paper
Rørtveit, K. , Sætre Hansen, B. , Leiknes, I. , Joa, I. , Testad, I. and Severinsson, E. (2015) Patients’ Experiences of Trust in the Patient-Nurse Relationship—A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies. Open Journal of Nursing, 5, 195-209. doi: 10.4236/ojn.2015.53024.
References
[1]   Seetharamu, N., Iqbal, U. and Weiner, J.S. (2007) Determinants of Trust in the Patient-Oncologist Relationship. Palliative & Supportive Care, 5, 405-409.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1478951507000600

[2]   de Raeve, L. (2002) The Modification of Emotional Responses: A Problem for Trust in Nurse-Patient Relationships? Nursing Ethics, 9, 465-471.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0969733002ne536oa

[3]   Belcher, M. and Jones, L.K. (2009) Graduate Nurses Experiences of Developing Trust in the Nurse-Patient Relationship. Contemporary Nurse, 31, 142-152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5172/conu.673.31.2.142

[4]   Dinc, L. and Gastmans, C. (2012) Trust and Trustworthiness in Nursing: An Argument-Based Literature Review. Nursing Inquiry, 19, 223-237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1800.2011.00582.x

[5]   Pask, E.J. (1999) Trust: An Essential Component of Nursing Practice—Implications for Nurse Education. Nurse Education Today, 15, 190-195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0260-6917(95)80105-7

[6]   Martinsen, K. (2005) Samtalen, skjønnet og evidensen (no.). Akribe, Gjøvik, 166.

[7]   Delmar, C. (2012) Utvecling av en omvårdnadsteori om livsfenomen—med Kari Martinsens omsorgsfilosofi som förståelseshorisont. In: Jörgensen, B.B. and Steenfeldt, V.Ö., Eds., Omvårdsteori Som Referensram, Kina, Forfattarna och Liber AB, 86-101.

[8]   Dinc, L. and Gastmans, C. (2013) Trust in Nurse-Patient Relationships: A Literature Review. Nursing Ethics, 20, 501-516.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0969733012468463

[9]   Connell, N.A. and Mannion, R. (2006) Conceptualisations of Trust in the Organisational Literature: Some Indicators from a Complementary Perspective. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 20, 417-433.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777260610701795

[10]   Johns, J.L. (1996) A Concept Analysis of Trust. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 24, 76-83.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1996.16310.x

[11]   McHale, D. and Deatrick, J. (2000) Trust between Family and Health Care Provider. Journal of Family Nursing, 6, 210-230.

[12]   Hupcey, J.E., Penrod, J., Morse, J.M. and Mitcham, C. (2001) An Exploration and Advancement of the Concept of Trust. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36, 282-293.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01970.x

[13]   Gilson, L. (2006) Trust in Health Care: Theoretical Perspectives and Research Needs. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 2, 359-375.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777260610701768

[14]   Lindstrom, U. (2001) Psykiatrisk sykepleie: Teori, verdier og praksis / Unni Å. Lindström; Oversatt av Inger Aanderaa. Gyldendal Akademisk, Oslo.

[15]   Laugharne, R. and Priebe, S. (2006) Trust, Choice and Power in Mental Health: A Literature Review. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 41, 843-852.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-006-0123-6

[16]   Epstein, R.M. (2006) Making Communication Research Matter: What Do Patients Notice, What Do Patients Want, and What Do Patients Need? Patient Education and Counseling, 60, 272-278.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2005.11.003

[17]   Bell, L. and Duffy, A. (2009) A Concept Analysis of Nurse-Patient Trust. British Journal of Nursing, 18, 46-51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2009.18.1.32091

[18]   Hupcey, J.E. and Miller, J. (2006) Community Dwelling Adults’ Perception of Interpersonal Trust vs. Trust in Health Care Providers. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15, 1132-1139.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2006.01386.x

[19]   Hansen, B.S., Rørtveit, K., Leiknes, I., Morken, I., Testad, I., Joa, I., et al. (2012) Patient Experiences of Uncertainty—A Synthesis to Guide Nursing Practice and Research. Journal of Nursing Management, 20, 266-277.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01369.x

[20]   Dixon-Woods, M., Agarwal, S., Jones, D., Young, B. and Sutton, A. (2005) Synthesising Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence: A Review of Possible Methods. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 10, 45-53.

[21]   Noyes, J. and Popay, J. (2007) Directly Observed Therapy and Tuberculosis: How Can a Systematic Review of Qualitative Research Contribute to Improving Services? A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 57, 227-243.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.04092.x

[22]   Ring, N., Jepson, R., Hoskins, G., Wilson, C., Pinnock, H., Sheikh, A., et al. (2011) Understanding What Helps or Hinders Asthma Action Plan Use: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Literature. Patient Education and Counseling, 85, e131-e143.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2011.01.025

[23]   Graneheim, U.H. and Lundman, B. (2004) Qualitative Content Analysis in Nursing Research: Concepts, Procedures and Measures to Achieve Trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today, 24, 105-112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001

[24]   CASP, Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (2013) 10 Questions to Help You Make Sense of Qualitative Research. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP), Oxford.
http://media.wix.com/ugd/dded87_29c5b002d99342f788c6ac670e49f274.pdf

[25]   Leiphart, L.R. and Barnes, M.G. (2005) The Client Experience of Assertive Community Treatment: A Qualitative Study. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 28, 395-397.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2975/28.2005.395.397

[26]   Nygardh, A., Malm, D., Wikby, K. and Ahlström, G. (2012) The Experience of Empowerment in the Patient-Staff Encounter: The Patient’s Perspective. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21, 897-904.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03901.x

[27]   Thomas, J.D., Finch, L.P., Schoenhofer, S.O. and Green, A. (2004) The Caring Relationships Created by Nurse Practitioners and the Ones Nursed: Implications for Practice. Topics in Advanced Practice Nursing eJournal, 4.

[28]   Mok, E. and Chiu, P.C. (2004) Nurse-Patient Relationships in Palliative Care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 48, 475-483.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03230.x

[29]   Gilburt, H., Rose, D. and Slade, M. (2008) The Importance of Relationships in Mental Health Care: A Qualitative Study of Service Users’ Experiences of Psychiatric Hospital Admission in the UK. BMC Health Services Research, 8, 1-12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-8-92

[30]   Gunther, S., Guo, F., Sinfield, P., Rogers, S. and Baker, R. (2012) Barriers and Enablers to Managing Obesity in General Practice: A Practical Approach for Use in Implementation Activities. Quality in Primary Care, 20, 93-103.

[31]   Alsen, P., Brink, E. and Persson, L.O. (2008) Patients’ Illness Perception Four Months after a Myocardial Infarction. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17, 25-33.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02136.x

[32]   Battaglia, T.A., Finley, E. and Liebschutz, J.M. (2003) Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence Speak Out: Trust in the Patient-Provider Relationship. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 18, 617-623.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2003.21013.x

[33]   Piippo, J. and Aaltonen, J. (2008) Mental Health Care: Trust and Mistrust in Different Caring Contexts. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17, 2867-2874.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02270.x

[34]   Langley, G.C. and Klopper, H. (2005) Trust as a Foundation for the Therapeutic Intervention for Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 12, 23-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2850.2004.00774.x

[35]   Lindgren, H., Hildingsson, I. and Radestad, I. (2006) A Swedish Interview Study: Parents’ Assessment of Risks in Home Births. Midwifery, 22, 15-22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2005.04.002

[36]   Mauleon, A.L., Palo-Bengtsson, L. and Ekman, S.L. (2007) Patients Experiencing Local Anaesthesia and Hip Surgery. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16, 892-829.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.01771.x

[37]   Brown, J., Sorrell, J.H., McClaren, J. and Crewell, J.W. (2006) Waiting for a Liver Transplant. Qualitative Health Research, 16, 119-136.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049732305284011

[38]   Wiersma, E.C. and Pedlar, A. (2008) The Nature of Relationships in Alternative Dementia Care Environments. Canadian Journal on Aging, 27, 101-108.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3138/cja.27.1.101

[39]   Sacks, J.L. and Nelson, J.P. (2007) A Theory of Nonphysical Suffering and Trust in Hospice Patients. Qualitative Health Research, 17, 675-689.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049732306298524

[40]   Cain, C.H., Neuwirth, E., Bellows, J., Zuber, C. and Green, J. (2012) Patient Experiences of Transitioning from Hospital to Home: An Ethnographic Quality Improvement Project. Journal of Hospital Medicine, 7, 382-387.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhm.1918

[41]   Ekman, I., Ekstrand, L. and Schaufelberger, M. (2007) Pulmonary Oedema—A Life Threatening Disease. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 6, 259-264.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcnurse.2006.11.003

[42]   Brown, P.R., Alaszewski, A., Swift, T. and Nordin, A. (2011) Actions Speak Louder Than Words: The Embodiment of Trust by Healthcare Professionals in Gynae-Oncology. Sociology of Health & Illness, 33, 280-295.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2010.01284.x

[43]   Donnelly, F. and Wiechula, R. (2006) The Lived Experience of a Tracheostomy Tube Change: A Phenomenological Study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15, 1115-1122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2006.01384.x

 
 
Top