CRCM  Vol.4 No.3 , March 2015
Description of a Triad of Rare Malignancies in a Single Patient
Abstract: We describe the case of a patient diagnosed with a rhabdomyosarcoma and two distinctly separate non-epithelial ovarian cancers. Granulosa cell tumour and Sertoli-Leydig tumour are rare tumours accounting for less than 10% of all ovarian malignancies. Rhabdomyosarcoma is also rare and more commonly seen in childhood. We link these tumours to a mutation in the forkhead transcription factor proteins.
Cite this paper: Fackrell, D. , Yeo, Y. and Walji, N. (2015) Description of a Triad of Rare Malignancies in a Single Patient. Case Reports in Clinical Medicine, 4, 107-109. doi: 10.4236/crcm.2015.43023.

[1]   Weigel, D., Jürgens, G., Küttner, F., Seifert, E. and Juckle, H. (1998) The Homeotic Gene Fork Head Encodes a Nuclear Protein and Is Expressed in the Terminal Regions of the Drosophila Embryo. Cell, 57, 645-658.

[2]   Hannenhalli, S. and Kaestner, K.H. (2009) The Evolution of Fox Genes and Their Role in Development and Disease. Nature Reviews Genetics, 10, 233-240.

[3]   Uhlenhaut, N.H., Jakob, S., Anlag, K., Eisenberger, T., Sekido, R., Kress, J., Treier, A.C., Klugmann, C., Klasen, C., Holter, N.I., Riethmacher, D., Schütz, G., Cooney, A.J., Lovell-Badge, R. and Treier, M. (2009) Somatic Sex Reprogramming of Adult Ovaries to Testes by FOXL2 Ablation. Cell, 139, 1130-1142.

[4]   Van Nieuwenhuysen, E., Lambrechts, S., Lambrechts, D., Leunen, K., Amant, F. and Vergote, I. (2013) Genetic Changes in Nonepithelial Ovarian Cancer. Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, 13, 871-882.

[5]   Shah, S.P., et al. (2009) Mutation of FOXL2 in Granulosa-Cell Tumors of the Ovary. The New England Journal of Medicine, 360, 2719-2729.

[6]   Al-Agha, O.M., Huwait, H.F., Chow, C., Yang, W., Senz, J., Kalloger, S.E., Huntsman, D.G., Young, R.H. and Gilks, C.B. (2011) FOXL2 Is a Sensitive and Specific Marker for Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors of the Ovary. American Journal of Surgical Pathology, 35, 484-494.

[7]   Ahn, E.H. (2013) Regulation of Target Genes of PAX3-FOXO1 in Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma. Anticancer Research, 33, 2029-2035.

[8]   Uhlenhaut, N.H. and Treier M. (2011) Forkhead Transcription Factors in Ovarian Function. Reproduction, 142, 489-495.

[9]   Missiaglia, E., Williamson, D., Chisholm, J., et al. (2012) PAX3/FOXO1 Fusion Gene Status Is the Key Prognostic Molecular Marker in Rhabdomyosarcoma and Significantly Improves Current Risk Stratification. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 30, 1670-1677.