WJNSE  Vol.1 No.2 , June 2011
Synthesis and Characterization of Soy Protein Isolate/MMT Nanocomposite Film for the Control Release of the Drug Ofloxacin
ABSTRACT
Nanocomposites were prepared by blending soy protein isolate with different percentage of MMT by melt extrusion technique. The nanocomposites were characterized by using, XRD, TEM, SEM and TGA methods. The XRD studies indicated the absence of diffraction peaks for the bio-nanocomposites. From the TEM studies it was ascertained that the degree of exfoliation increased with increase in MMT content. The morphology of the nanocomposites was ascertained from the SEM studies. The degradation pattern of the nano-composites was evaluated from the TG analysis. The drug delivery system of the nanocmposites was investigated by blending the nanocomposites with ofloxacin at different pH media. The various kinetic parameters were evaluated and the mechanism of drug delivery has been postulated based on the kinetic data.

Cite this paper
nullP. Nayak, S. Sahoo, A. Behera, P. Nanda, P. Nayak and B. Guru, "Synthesis and Characterization of Soy Protein Isolate/MMT Nanocomposite Film for the Control Release of the Drug Ofloxacin," World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering, Vol. 1 No. 2, 2011, pp. 27-36. doi: 10.4236/wjnse.2011.12005.
References
[1]   S.N Swain, Roa, K.K. Rao, and, P.L.Nayak. “Biodegradable polymers: IV. Spectral, thermal, and mechanical properties of cross-linked soy protein concentrate”, Polym. Int. 2005, Vol. 54, 2005, pp.739.

[2]   P.K.Nanda; Rao, K.K. Rao; P.L. Nayak; “Spectral, Thermal, Morphological, 548 and Biodegradability Properties of Environment-Friendly Green Plastics of Soy Protein Modified with Thiosemicarbazide”, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., Vol. 103, 2007, pp. 31-34.

[3]   P.K. Nanda, K.K.Rao, P.L.Nayak; Thermal Degradation Analysis of 550 Biodegradable plastics from Urea-Modified Soy Protein Isolate, Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng. Vol. 46, 2007, pp 207.

[4]   C.P Pathak, A.S. Sawhney J.A. Rap Hubbell. “Photo polymerization of Immuno protective Gels in Contact with Cells and Tissue,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. Vol. 114, 1992, pp. 8311-8312.

[5]   G. Lambert, E. Fatale, P. Couvreur “Nanoparticulate systems for the delivery of antisense oligonucleotides” Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. Vol. 47, 2001, pp. 99-112.

[6]   K. McAllister, P Sanzani, M. Adam, cho, M.j. Rubinstein. Polymeric nanogels produced via inverse microemulsion polymerization as potential gene and antisense delivery agents, J. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 124, 2002, pp. 15198- 15207.

[7]   P. Legrand, G.; Barratt. Polymeric nanocapsules as Drug Delivery system, STP Pharma. Sci Vol. 9, 1991, pp. 411- 418.

[8]   J Jagur-Grodzinski, Biomedical application of functional polymers, React. Functional. Polym. Vol. 39, 1999, pp. 99-138.

[9]   S Ramakrishna, J. Mayer. Biomedical application of polymer composite materials, Compos. Sci. Technol. Vol. 9, 2001, pp. 1189-1224.

[10]   D Allen; Maysinger, A. Eisenberg, Nano-engineering block co-polymers aggregates for drug delivery, Colloid Surf. B. Vol. 16, 1999, pp. 3-27.

[11]   H. Maeda, T Sawa, T. Konno, Mechanism of tumor targeted delivery macromolecular drugs including the EPR effect in solid tumor and clinical overview of the prototyoe polymeric drugs, J. Controlled Release Vol. 74, 2001, pp. 47-61

[12]   V.B Pokharkar, S. Sivaram, 1996.Permeabilty studies across poly (alkylene carbonate) membranes, J. Control. Rel. Vol.41, 1996, pp.157-162

[13]   C.J Goodwin.; M.; Braden, S.; Downes, N.J Marshall, Release of bioactive human growth hormone from a biodegradable material poly(epsilon-caprolactone), J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Vol. 40, 1998, pp. 204-13.

[14]   C.G. Pitt, M.M Gratzl, A.R. Jeffcoat, R. Zweidinger A..Schindler, Sustained drug delivery system II: factors affecting release rate from poly(e caprolactone), and related biodegradable polyesters, J. Pharm. Sci. Vol.68, 1979, pp. 1534

[15]   E Tomlinson, JJ Burger. Incorporation of water soluble drugs in albumin microspheres. In: J. Widder, R Green, editors. Methods in enzymology, New York: Academic Press; Vol. 112, 1985, pp. 27-43.

[16]   A.Gennadios, CL Weller. Edible films and coatings from soymilk and soy protein. Cereal Foods World Vol. 36, 1991, pp. 1004-9.

[17]   M Subirade, I. Kelly, J Gueguen, M.Pezolet Molecular basis of film formation from a soybean protein: comparison between the conformation of glycinin in aqueous solution and in films. Int J Biol Macromol Vol. 23, 1998, pp. 241-9.

[18]   A.Gennadios, T.H McHugh, C.L Weller, J.M Krochta. Edible coatings and films based on proteins. In: JM Krochta, EA Baldwin, M Nisperos-Carriedo, editors. Edible coatings and films to improve food quality. Lancaster, PA: Technomic Publishing Company; 1994. pp. 201-77.

[19]   JM Krochta, De Mulder-Johnston CD. Edible and biodegradable polymer films: challenges and opportunities. Food Technol Vol. 51, 1997, pp. 61-74.

[20]   AH Brandenburg, CL Weller, RF Testin. Edible films and coatings from soy protein. J Food Sci Vol. 58, 1993, pp. 1086-9.

[21]   A Gennadios, VM Ghorpade, CL Weller, MA. Hanna Increase in water vapor barrier properties of biopolymer-based edible films and coatings by compositing lipid materials. Food Sci Biotechnol Vol. 13, 1996, pp.528-35.

[22]   JW, Rhim A. Gennadios CL Weller, C. Cezeirat MA Hanna. Soy protein isolatedialdehyde starch films. Ind Crop Prod Vol. 8, 1998, pp. 195-203.

[23]   P.L Nayak, J. Macromol. Sci.Rev.Macromol. Chem. Phys., Biodegradable polymer: opportunities and challenges. Vol. 39(3), 1999, pp. 481-505.

[24]   P.L.Nayak., J. Macromol. Sci.Rev.Macromol. Chem. Phys., Natural Oil Based Polymers: Opportunities and Challenges Vol. 40(1), 2000, pp. 1-21.

[25]   S.N. Swain, S.M Biswal, P.K, Nanda, and P.L Nayak, Biodegradable soy-based plastics: opportunities and challenges. Journal of Polymers and the Environment Vol. 12(1), 2004, pp. 35-42.

[26]   S.N. Swain, K.K. Rao, and, P.L Nayak. J. Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 79, 33. Biodegradable polymers. III. Spectral, thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties of cross-linked furfural–soy protein concentrate, Vol. 93, 2004, pp. 2590.

[27]   SS Ray, M .Bousmina. Biodegradable polymers and their layered silicate nanocomposites: in greening the 21st century materials world. Progress in materials science Vol. 50, 2005 pp. 962-1079.

[28]   JW Rhim, Ng PKW., Natural biopolymer-based nanocomposite films for packaging applications. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition Vol. 47(4), 2007, pp. 411-433.

[29]   R Zhao, P Torley, PJ Halley, Emerging biodegradable materials: starch- and proteinbased bio-nanocomposites. Journal of materials science Vol. 43, 2008, pp. 3058- 3071.

[30]   TD, Fornes D.R Paul 2003. Modeling properties of nylon 6/clay nanocomposites using composite theories. Polymer Vol. 44, 2003, pp. 4993-5013.

[31]   HR Dennis, DL Hunter, D Chang, S Kim, JL White, JW Cho, DR Paul. . Effect of melt processing conditions on the extent of exfoliation in organoclay-based nanocomposites. Polymer Vol. 42, 2001, pp. 9513-9522.

[32]   JW Rhim, Y.Wu, C.LWeller, M.Schnepf Physical characteristics of a composite films of soy protein isolate and propyleneglycol alginate. Journal of food science Vol. 64(1), 1999, pp. 149-152.

[33]   K Dean, Yu L. Biodegradable protein-nanoparticles composites. In: Smith R, editor. Biodegradable Polymers for Industrial Applications. UK: Woodhead Publishing Ltd. 2005, pp. 289-312.

[34]   A. K.Singla, & D. K Medirata,. Influence of sodium lauryl sulfate on indomethacin release patterns. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, Vol. 14, 1988, pp. 1883-1888.

[35]   T. Higuchi, Mechanism of rate of sustained-action medication. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 52, 1963, pp. 1145-1149.

[36]   A. R Kulkarni, K. S Soppimath., & T. M. Aminabhavi, Controlled release of diclofenac sodium from sodium alginate beads crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. Phramaceutica Acta Helvitae, Vol.74, 1999, pp. 29-36.

[37]   T. M. Aminabhavi&, H. G Naik. Chemical compatibility study of geomembranes-sorption/desorption, diffusion and swelling phenomena. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 60, 1998, pp. 175-203.

[38]   S. P Lyu, R Sparer, C. Hobot, & K. Dang, Adjusting drug diffusivity using miscible polymer blends. Journal of Controlled Release, Vol. 102, 2005, pp. 679-687.

[39]   R. L Ritger, & N. A Peppas, A simple equation for disposition of solute release—II. Journal of Controlled Release, Vol. 5, 1987, pp. 37-42.

 
 
Top