AJCC  Vol.4 No.1 , March 2015
Restructuring the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) Mechanism for a Post Kyoto Agreement
Abstract: With the possibility of a new climate agreement being formed in 2015 at COP 21 in Paris, there is a vital need to restructure REDD+ for formal inclusion into such an agreement. There are two vital questions that need to be assessed if REDD+ is to be effective as a policy tool within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). First, can REDD+ be financially self-sustaining if it remains as a fund based mechanism or will a market based system be more effective? Second, will REDD+ remain primarily a carbon offsetting mechanism or can it also deliver co-benefits (poverty alleviation, biodiversity conservation, and promoting indigenous rights protection)?
Cite this paper: Pillay, K. and Ramsay, L. (2015) Restructuring the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) Mechanism for a Post Kyoto Agreement. American Journal of Climate Change, 4, 69-76. doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2015.41007.

[1]   UNFCCC (2013) REDD Web Platform.

[2]   Venter, O. and Koh, L.P. (2012) Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+): Game Changer or Just Another Quick Fix? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1249, 137-150.

[3]   Pistorius, T. (2012) From RED to REDD+: The Evolution of a Forest-Based Mitigation Approach for Developing Countries. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 4, 638-645.

[4]   Chhatre, A., Lakhanpal, S., Larson, A.M., Nelson, F., Ojha, H. and Jagdeesh, R. (2012) Social Safeguards and Co-Benefits in REDD+: A Review of the Adjacent Possible. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 4, 654-660.

[5]   Corbera, E. and Schroeder, H. (2012) Governing and Implementing REDD+. Environmental Science & Policy, 14, 89-99.

[6]   Harvey, C.A., Dickson, B. and Kormos, C. (2010) Opportunities for Achieving Biodiversity Conservation through REDD. Conservation Letters, 3, 53-61.

[7]   Isenberg, J. and Potvin, C. (2010) Financing REDD in Developing Countries: A Supply and Demand Analysis. Climate Policy, 10, 216-231.

[8]   Cerbu, G.A., Swallow, B.M. and Thompson, D.Y. (2011) Locating REDD: A Global Survey and Analysis of REDD Readiness and Demonstration Activities. Environmental Science & Policy, 14, 168-180.

[9]   IIED (2009) REDD: Protecting Climate Forests and Livelihoods.

[10]   UNCSD (2012) Green Jobs and Social Inclusion. Rio Di Janerio, Issue Brief, No. 7.

[11]   Madeira, E.C.M. (2008) Policies to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in Developing Countries: An Examination of the Issues Facing the Incorporation of REDD into Market-Based Climate Policies. Resource for the Future, Washington DC.

[12]   Hartley, M.J. (2002) Rationale and Methods for Conserving Biodiversity in Plantation Forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 155, 81-95.

[13]   Licata, J.A., Gyenge, J.E., Fernandez, M.E., Schlichter, T.M. and Bond, B.J. (2007) Increased Water Use by Ponderosa Pine Plantations in Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina Compared with Native Forest Vegetation. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 753-764.

[14]   De Sy, V., Herold, M., Achard, F., Asner, G.P., Held, A., Kellndorfer, J. and Verbesselt, J. (2012) Synergies of Multiple Remote Sensing Data Sources for REDD+ Monitoring. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 4, 696-706.

[15]   Herold, M. and Skutsch, M. (2011) Monitoring, Reporting and Verification for National REDD+ Programmes: Two Proposals. Environmental Research Letters, 6, 1-10.

[16]   Corbera, E., Estrada, M., May, P., Navarro, G. and Pacheco, P. (2011) Rights to Land, Forests and Carbon in REDD+: Insights from Mexico, Brazil and Costa Rica. Forests, 2, 301-342.

[17]   Kotak, T. (2013) The REDD+ Programme: Effects on Governance Theory, Market Theory, and a Post-Kyoto World.

[18]   Venter, O., Laurance, W.F., Iwamura, T., Wilson, K.A., Fuller, R.A. and Possingham, H.P. (2009) Harnessing Carbon Payments to Protect Biodiversity. Science, 326, 1368-1368.

[19]   Jindal, R., Swallow, B. and Kerr, J. (2008) Forestry-Based Carbon Sequestration Projects in Africa: Potential Benefits and Challenges. Natural Resources Forum, Wiley Online Library.

[20]   Sasaki, N. and Putz, F.E. (2009) Critical Need for New Definitions of “Forest” and “Forest Degradation” in Global Climate Change Agreements. Conservation Letters, 2, 226-232.

[21]   Saatchi, S.S., Harris, N.L., Brown, S., Lefsky, M., Mitchard, E.T.A., Salas, W., Zutta, B.R., Beurmann, W., Lewis, S.L., Hagen, S., Petrova, S., White, L., Silman, M. and Morei, A. (2011) Benchmark Map of Forest Carbon Stocks in Tropical Regions across Three Continents. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 9899-9904.

[22]   Scheffer, M. and Carpenter, S.R. (2003) Catastrophic Regime Shifts in Ecosystems: Linking Theory to Observation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 648-656.

[23]   Thompson, I., Mackey, B., McNulty, S. and Mosseler, A. (2009) Forest Resilience, Biodiversity, and Climate Change. A Synthesis of the Biodiversity/Resilience/Stability Relationship in Forest Ecosystems. Technical Series No. 43, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, 67 p.

[24]   Erskine, P.D., Lamb, D. and Bristow, M. (2006) Tree Species Diversity and Ecosystem Function: Can Tropical Multi-Species Plantations Generate Greater Productivity? Forest Ecology and Management, 233, 205-210.

[25]   Cannell, M.G. (1999) Environmental Impacts of Forest Monocultures: Water Use, Acidification, Wildlife Conservation, and Carbon Storage. New Forests, 17, 239-262.

[26]   Stickler, C.M., Nepstad, D.C., Coe, M.T., McGrath, G., Rodrigues, H.O., Walker, W.S., Soares-Filho, B.S. and Davidson, E.A. (2009) The Potential Ecological Costs and Co-Benefits of REDD: A Critical Review and Case Study from the Amazon Region. Global Change Biology, 15, 2803-2824.

[27]   Pistorius, T., Schmitt, C., Benick, D., Entenmann, S. and Reinecke, S. (2011) Greening REDD+—Challenges and Opportunities for Integrating Biodiversity Safeguards at and across Policy Levels. German Journal of Forest Science, 182, 82-98.

[28]   Fry, I. (2008) Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation: Opportunities and Pitfalls in Developing a New Legal Regime. Review of European Community &International Environmental Law, 17, 166-182.

[29]   Lederer, M. (2011) From CDM to REDD+—What Do We Know for Setting up Effective and Legitimate Carbon Governance? Ecological Economics, 70, 1900-1907.

[30]   Merger, E., Dutschke, M. and Verchot, L. (2011) Options for REDD+ Voluntary Certification to Ensure Net GHG Benefits, Poverty Alleviation, Sustainable Management of Forests and Biodiversity Conservation. Forests, 2, 550-577.

[31]   Spergel, B. and Wells, M. (2009) Conservation Trust Funds as a Model for REDD+ National Financing. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor.

[32]   Halpern, B.S., Pyke, C.R., Fox, H.E., Haney, J.C., Schlaepfer, M.A. and Zaradic, P. (2006) Gaps and Mismatches between Global Conservation Priorities and Spending. Conservation Biology, 20, 56-64.

[33]   Eliasch, J. (2008) Climate Change: Financing Global Forests—The Eliasch Review. Earthscan, London and Sterling.

[34]   Stern, N. (2008) The Economics of Climate Change. American Economic Review, 98, 1-37.

[35]   Reinecke, S., Pistorius, T. and Pregernig, M. (2014) UNFCCC and the REDD+ Partnership from a Networked Governance Perspective. Environmental Science & Policy, 35, 30-39.

[36]   Thomas, S., Dargusch, P., Harrison, S. and Herbohn, J. (2010) Why Are There So Few Afforestation and Reforestation Clean Development Mechanism Projects? Land Use Policy, 27, 880-887.

[37]   Lloyd, B. and Subbarao, S. (2009) Development Challenges under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)—Can Renewable Energy Initiatives Be Put in Place before Peak Oil? Energy Policy, 37, 237-245.

[38]   Bhullar, L. (2013) REDD+ and the Clean Development Mechanism: A Comparative Perspective. International Journal of Rural Law and Policy.

[39]   Sutter, C. and Parreno, J.C. (2007) Does the Current Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Deliver Its Sustainable Development Claim? An Analysis of Officially Registered CDM Projects. Climatic change, 84, 75-90.

[40]   Schlamadinger, B., Johns, T., Ciccarese, L., Braun, M., Sato, A., Senyaz, A., Stephens, P., Takahashi, M. and Zhang, X. (2007) Options for Including Land Use in a Climate Agreement Post-2012: Improving the Kyoto Protocol Approach. Environmental Science & Policy, 10, 295-305.

[41]   Linacre, N., Kossoy, A. and Guigon, P. (2011) State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2011.

[42]   Groom, B. and Palmer, C. (2012) REDD+ and Rural Livelihoods. Biological Conservation, 154, 42-52.

[43]   Food and Agriculture Organization (1998) Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture.

[44]   Pagiola, S., Arcenas, A. and Platais, G. (2005) Can Payments for Environmental Services Help Reduce Poverty? An Exploration of the Issues and the Evidence to Date from Latin America. World Development, 33, 237-253.

[45]   Urban, F. (2010) The MDGs and Beyond: Can Low Carbon Development Be Pro-Poor? IDS Bulletin, 41, 92-99.

[46]   Lawlor, K., Weinthal, E. and Olander, L. (2010) Institutions and Policies to Protect Rural Livelihoods in REDD+ Regimes. Global Environmental Politics, 10, 1-11.

[47]   Lyster, R. (2011) REDD+, Transparency, Participation and Resource Rights: The Role of Law. Environmental Science & Policy, 14, 118-126.

[48]   Angelsen, A. and Brockhaus, M. (2009) Realising REDD+: National Strategy and Policy Options. CIFOR, Bogor.

[49]   Palmer, C. (2011) Property Rights and Liability for Deforestation under REDD+: Implications for “Permanence” in Policy Design. Ecological Economics, 70, 571-576.

[50]   Rudel, T.K., Defries, R., Asner, G.P. and Laurance, W.F. (2009) Changing Drivers of Deforestation and New Opportunities for Conservation. Conservation Biology, 23, 1396-1405.