OJVM  Vol.5 No.3 , March 2015
Foreleg Bending in Blue Foxes (Vulpes lagopus) as Evaluated by Radiography
Abstract: The aim was to compare radiographic X-ray data to foreleg bending, moving difficulties and body size in juvenile blue foxes. Experimental groups were: 1) restricted feeding, Ca:P ratio 1.5:1 (R 1); 2) restricted feeding, Ca:P ratio 2.9:1 (R 2); 3) restricted feeding Ca:P ratio 2.0:1 control level (R 3); 4) ad libitum feeding, Ca:P ratio 1.5:1 (AL 1); 5) ad libitum feeding, Ca:P ratio 2.9:1 (AL 2); 6) ad libitum feeding Ca:P ratio 2.0:1 control level (AL 3). Moving difficulties and foreleg bending were evaluated in live animals. At pelting, left foreleg was removed. X-ray pictures were taken from lateral views. Dimensions of ulna and radius were measured from the X-ray pictures. Conditions of carpal joint and elbow joint were visually evaluated. The results showed that final body weight was affected by feeding intensity (P = 0.001). Ad libitum fed animals had more moving difficulties compared to restricted ones (P = 0.001). The Ca:P ratio tended (P = 0.06) to have an effect on feet bending. Bending was greatest in low Ca:P ratio (1.5:1) and, correspondingly, least in high Ca:P ratio (2.9:1). Moving difficulties were most common in heaviest animals. The moving difficulties tended (P = 0.07) to be positively related to feet bending. Maximum width of ulna was lowest in low Ca:P ratio diet (1.5:1). Bending was negatively correlated with maximum width of ulna. It can be concluded that low Ca:P ratio in the diet (1.5:1) increases foreleg bending in juveniles. Moving difficulties are related to foreleg bending and high body weight.
Cite this paper: Korhonen, H. , Eskeli, P. , Huuki, H. and Sepponen, J. (2015) Foreleg Bending in Blue Foxes (Vulpes lagopus) as Evaluated by Radiography. Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 5, 61-67. doi: 10.4236/ojvm.2015.53008.

[1]   Ahola, L., Huuki, H., Koistinen, T. and Mononen, J. (2014) Eläinten hyvinvointi kettutiloilla: Tuloksia tilakäynneiltä. Itä-Suomen yliopisto, Biologian laitos ja Maaja elintarviketalouden tutkimuskeskus MTT, Kotieläintuotannon tutkimus, 107.

[2]   Korhonen, H.T., Eskeli, P., Lappi, T., Huuki, H. and Sepponen, J. (2014) Effects of Feeding Intensity and Ca:P Ratio on Foot Welfare in Blue Foxes (Vulpes lagopus). Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 4, 153-164.

[3]   Smith, C.W. (1991) Osteochondrosis in the Dog—Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognoses. Canine Practice, 16, 15-22.

[4]   Grondalen, J. and Lingaas, F. (1991) Artrosis in the Elbow Joint of Young Rapidly Growing Dogs: A Genetic Investigation. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 32, 420-464.

[5]   Beale, B.S. (1999) Osteochondrosis in Dogs: Surgical Indications and Consideration. Proceedings of the North American veterinary Conference, 13, 471-472.

[6]   Brianza, S.Z.M., Delisem M., Ferraris, M.M., D’Amelio, P. and Botti, P. (2006) Cross-Sectional Geometrical Properties of Distal Radius and Ulna in Large, Medium and Toy Breed Dogs. Journal of Biomechanics, 39, 302-311.

[7]   Korhonen, H.T., Happo, M., Rekilä, T., Valaja, J. and Pölönen, I. (2005) Effects of Diet Calcium:Phosporus Ratio and Metabolizable Energy Content on Development of Osteochondrosis, Foot Bending and Performance in Blue Foxes. Animal Science, 80, 325-331.

[8]   Harris, L.E., Basett, C.F. and Wilke, C.F. (1951) Effect of Various Levels of Calcium, Phosphorus and Vitamin D Intake on Bone Growth. I. Foxes. Journal of Nutrition, 43, 153-165.

[9]   Bassett, C.F., Harris, L.E. and Wilke, C.F. (1951) Effect of Various Levels of Calcium, Phosphorus and Vitamin D Intake on Bone Growth. II. Minks. Journal of Nutrition, 44, 433-442.

[10]   Valaja, J., Pölönen, I., Jalava, T., Perttilä, S. and Niemelä, P. (2000) Effect of Dietary Mineral Content on Mineral Metabolism and Performance of Growing Blue Foxes. Scientifur, 24, 28-31.

[11]   Valaja, J., Pölönen, I., Rekilä, T., Nenonen, N. and Jalava, T. (2002) Calcium and Phosporus Nutrition of Blue Foxes. NJF-Seminar No. 347, 2-4. October 2002, Vuokatti, 8.

[12]   Kempe, R., Koskinen, N., Mäntysaari, E. and Stranden, I. (2010) The Genetics of Body Condition and Leg Weakness in the Blue Fox (Alopex lagopus). Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 60, 141-150.

[13]   Korhonen, H.T. and Orjala, H. (2010) Effect of Cage Dimensions on Welfare and Production of Farmed Blue Fox. Annals of Animal Science, 10, 311-324.

[14]   Korhonen, H.T., Jauhianen, L. and Rekilä, T. (2007) Comparison of Blue Fox Housing in Shed and Hall Environment. Annals of Animal Science, 7, 23-34.