JSBS  Vol.5 No.1 , March 2015
Metal and Composite Intermodal Containers in Comparative Cold Tests with Wood Chips
Abstract: Intermodal containers have many advantages in the bulk supply chain, but idle times may cause freezing problems for containers in terminals and long-lasting deliveries, especially during the winter time in Nordic conditions. The aim of the cold tests was to study metal and composite containers’ ability to tolerate wood chips freezing into the inner surface of the container. Two of the containers were normal metal containers and one was a composite container. The loaded containers were put inside the laboratory hall, the temperature of which was -30°C, and kept there for variable times: less than 24 hours. The inner surface of one of metal containers was treated with a special coolant, EC1. After the test, the chips were unloaded, and the container walls were checked to determine whether there was any material left on them. The test results indicated the advantages of composite containers having a thermally insulated structure without freezing problems. At the same time, chips were freezing badly onto the floor of both metal containers. A frozen chip layer with a thickness of approximately 50 cm - 60 cm was stuck to the floors. As such, EC1 did not seem to prevent the freezing of the chips onto the inner surfaces. The results proved that intermodal logistics of truck and train transportation would be more suitable for composite containers than for metal containers in the winter time in Nordic conditions.
Cite this paper: Föhr, J. , Karttunen, K. , Enström, J. , Johannesson, T. and Ranta, T. (2015) Metal and Composite Intermodal Containers in Comparative Cold Tests with Wood Chips. Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, 5, 32-39. doi: 10.4236/jsbs.2015.51003.

[1]   Torvelainen, J. (Ed.) (2014) Puun energiakaytto 2013 [Energy Use of Wood in 2013]. Metsatilastotiedote [Forest Statistical Bulletin]. Official Statistics of Finland, Finnish Forest Research Institute. (In Finnish)

[2]   Karttunen, K., Fohr, J., Ranta, T., Palojarvi, K. and Korpilahti, A. (2012) Puupolttoaineiden ja polttoturpeen kuljetuskalusto 2010 [Transportation Vehicles for Wood Fuels and Peat in 2010]. Metsatehon tuloskalvosarja. (In Finnish)

[3]   Strandstrom, M. (2013) Metsahakkeen tuotantoketjut Suomessa vuonna 2012 [Production Systems of Forest Chips in Finland, Year 2012]. Metsatehon tuloskalvosarja. (In Finnish)

[4]   Ministry of Employment and the Economy (2010) Suomen kansallinen toimintasuunnitelma uusiutuvista lahteista peraisin olevan energian edistamisesta direktiivin 2009/28/EY mukaisesti [Finnish National Action Plan to Promote the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources in Accordance with the EU Directive 2009/28/EY]. Energy Department.

[5]   Ranta, T. and Rinne, S. (2006) The Profitability of Transporting Uncomminuted Raw Materials in Finland. Biomass and Bioenergy, 30, 231-237.

[6]   Ranta, T., Korpinen, O.-J., Jappinen, E. and Karttunen, K. (2012) Forest Biomass Availability Analysis and Large-Scale Supply Options. Scientific Research, 2, 33-40.

[7]   Enstrom, J. (2008) Efficient Handling of Wood Fuel within the Railway System. In: Suadicani, K. and Talbot, B., Eds., The Nordic-Baltic Conference on Forest Operations, Copenhagen, 23-25 September 2008, 53-55.

[8]   Ranta, T., Fohr, J., Karttunen, K. and Knutas, A. (2014) Radio Frequency Identification and Composite Container Technology Demonstration for Transporting Logistics of Wood Biomass. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 6, Article ID: 013115.

[9]   Falkenberg, A. and Sokjer-Petersen, S. (2014) Transport Technology for Sustainable Intermodal Transports of Biofuel. MariTerm AB.

[10]   William, J.R. (1984) Cationic Polymers for Use in Freeze Protection of Coals and Minerals. US Patent: US4426409 A.

[11]   Enstrom, J. (2010) Greater Efficiency in Railway Transport of Forest Fuel. In: Thorsén, A., Bjorheden, R. and Eliasson, L., Eds., Efficient Forest Fuel Supply Systems, Composite Report from a Four Year, R & D Programme 2007-2010, Skogforsk, 80-83.

[12]   Fibrocom Oy [Home Page of the Company]. Finland.

[13]   Karttunen, K., Knutas, A., Fohr, J., Lattila, L., Ikonen, J. and Ranta, T. (2012) Composite Container Logistics. Proceedings of the 20th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Milan, 18-22 June 2012, 107-115.

[14]   EC1 Company AB [Home Page of the Company]. Sweden.