JMMCE  Vol.3 No.2 , March 2015
Enhancement of Dimensional Stability of Rigid PVC Foams Using E-Glass Fibers
Abstract: Short cut E-glass fibers of two different lengths were used to determine the effect of glass fiber length on the dimensional stability of rigid Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) foam in this study. Glass fibers measuring, 1/16" and 1/32" at different concentrations (0 wt% - 20 wt%) were used to reinforce rigid PVC foams; the PVC foam-glass fiber (PVC-GF) composites were extruded using a single screw profile extruder. The extruded PVC-GF composites were characterized for their dimensional stability, structural, thermal, and mechanical properties. Experimental results show that the dimensional stability, heat resistance, and storage modulus were enhanced without compromising the tensile and flexural strengths of the composites. Thermal shrinkage decreased by almost 55% in composites reinforced with 1/32" GF and by 60% in composites reinforced with 1/16" GFs, with visible improvements to the shape distortion. Overall, foam composites which were prepared with longer (1/16") glass fibers exhibited better mechanical and thermal properties than those prepared with shorter (1/32") glass fibers. Microstructural observations suggest that this is due to better interlocking between the long fibers and the foam cells, which result in better load distribution in the matrix.
Cite this paper: M. Jamel, M. , Khoshnoud, P. , Gunashekar, S. and Abu-Zahra, N. (2015) Enhancement of Dimensional Stability of Rigid PVC Foams Using E-Glass Fibers. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 3, 65-75. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2015.32009.

[1]   Shen, L., Haufe, J. and Patel, M. (2009) Product Overview and Market Projection of Emerging Bio-Based Plastics. Utrecht University, Netherlands.

[2]   Lee, S., Park, C. and Ramesh, N. (2007) Polymeric Foams. Boca Raton, 8-21.

[3]   British Plastic and Rubber (2003) Mineral Fillers for PVC Reinforcement.

[4]   Jiang, H. and Kamdem, D.P. (2004) Development of Poly(vinyl chloride)/Wood Composites. A Literature Review. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, 10, 59-69.

[5]   Ráthy, I., Kuki, á., Borda, J., Deák, G., Zsuga, M., Marossy, K. and Kéki, S. (2012) Preparation and Characterization of Poly(vinyl chloride)-Continuous Carbon Fiber Composites. The Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 124, 190-194.

[6]   Raj, R.G., Kokta, B.V. and Daneault, C. (1990) A Comparative Study on the Effect of Aging on Mechanical Properties of LLDPE-Glass Fiber, Mica, and Wood Fiber Composites. The Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 40, 645-655.

[7]   Canova, L.A., Ferguson, L.W., Parrinello, L.M. and Subramanian, R. (1997) Effect of Combinations of Fiber Glass and Mica on the Physical Properties and Dimensional Stability of Injection Molded Polypropylene Composites. Proceedings of 55th Annual Technical Conference Society of Plastics Engineering, Vol. 2, 2112-2116.

[8]   Jang, S.H., Kim, Y.H., Lim, S., Choi, G.D., Kim, S.H. and Kim, W.N. (2010) Effects of Fiber Characteristics on the Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Poly(butylene terephthalate)/Glass Fiber Composites. The Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 116, 3005-3012.

[9]   Hassan, A., Rahman, N. and Rosiyah, Y. (2011) Extrusion and Injection-Molding of Glass Fiber/MAPP/Polypropylene: Effect of Coupling Agent on DSC, DMA, and Mechanical Properties. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 30, 1223-1232.

[10]   Young, R. and Lovell, P. (2011) Introduction to Polymers. 3rd Edition, Boca Raton, 613-614.

[11]   Ozkoc, G., Bayram, G. and Bayramli, E. (2005) Short Glass Fiber Reinforced ABS and ABS/PA6 Composites: Processing and Characterization. Polymer Composites, 26, 745-755.

[12]   Thomason, J. (2009) The Influence of Fibre Length, Diameter and Concentration on the Impact Performance of Long Glass-Fiber Reinforced Polyamide 6,6. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 40, 114-124.

[13]   Jiang, H., Pascal Kamdem, D., Bezubic, B. and Ruede, P. (2003) Mechanical Properties of Poly(Vinyl Chloride)/Wood Flour/Glass Fiber Hybrid Composites. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, 9, 138-145.

[14]   Katz, H. and Mileski, H. (1987) Handbook of Fillers for Plastics. New York, 132-152.

[15]   White, L.J. (1990) Principles of Polymer Engineering Rheology. USA.

[16]   Rudolph, D. and Deanin, G.R. (1983) Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Poly(Butylene Terephthalate) Structural Foam. In: ANTEC 83: Plastics Engineering Today for Tomorrow’s World, Chicago, 2-5 May1983, 277-279.

[17]   Matuana, L.M., Park, C.B. and Balatinecz, J.J. (1998) Cell Morphology and Property Relationships of Microcellular Foamed PVC/Wood-Fiber Composites. Polymer Engineering & Science, 38, 1862-1872.

[18]   Mengeloglu, F. and Matuana, L.M. (2003) Mechanical Properties of Extrusion-Foamed Rigid PVC/Wood-Flour Composites. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, 9, 26-31.

[19]   Tungjitpornkull, N., Chaochanchaikul, K. and Sombatsompop, N. (2007) Mechanical Characterization of E-Chopped Strand Glass Fiber Reinforced Wood/PVC Composites. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 20, 535-550.

[20]   Qiao, J., Amirkhizi, A., Schaaf, K. and Nemat-Nasser, S. (2010) Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Fly Ash Filled Polyurea Elastomer. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, 133, Article ID: 011016.

[21]   Khoshnoud, P., Gunashekar, S., Jamel, M.M. and Abu-Zahra, N. (2014) Comparative Analysis of Rigid PVC Foam Reinforced with Class C and Class F Fly Ash. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 2, 554-565.

[22]   Luong, D., Pinisetty, D. and Gupta, N. (2013) Compressive Properties of Closed-Cell Polyvinyl Chloride Foams at Low and High Strain Rates: Experimental Investigation and Critical Review of State of the Art. Composites Part B: Engineering, 44, 403-416.