CE  Vol.2 No.2 , June 2011
Dilemma: The Art Teacher as a Liberal Educator
Author(s) Pnina Bachar
ABSTRACT
This paper discusses the dilemma facing the art teacher as a liberal educator. The author first reviews the evolution of liberal education from ancient times, through the Renaissance to modern times and discusses, through an extensive bibliography, ancient and modern theories which have impacted on the concept of “liberalism,” examining notions such as tolerance, individualism and autonomy which constitute the pillars of liberalism. The author discusses the contributions of philosophers and sociologists such as Thomas Hobbes, John Stuart Mill, Isaiah Berlin, and Will Kymlicka and then examines the two main approaches to liberalism: philosophical liberalism and political liberalism. The different emphases placed by these two approaches, on the individual and the group respectively, form the basis of the dilemma which faces the art teacher as a liberal educator. In order to understand the dilemma, the author draws a parallel between the two approaches and the role of the traditional art studio master and art educator. The goals of the studio master, who is devoted to the development of the individual, accord with philosophical liberalism, while those of the art educator, who is obliged to adhere to the demands of a school system, accord with political liberalism, which stresses equality for all. The ideal, says the author, resides in an amalgam of the two approaches and is symbolized in the term “artist-teacher” but she asks whether it is possible to truly merge the two approaches, at the same level, in the teaching process.

Cite this paper
nullBachar, P. (2011). Dilemma: The Art Teacher as a Liberal Educator. Creative Education, 2, 136-141. doi: 10.4236/ce.2011.22019.
References
[1]   Bachar, P., & Glaubman, R. (2007). The image of the student and the teacher in the plastic arts curricula for elementary and junior high schools in the period 1906-1993. Dapim, 44, 148-179.

[2]   Bachar, P., & Glaubman, R. (2006). Policy and practice of art teaching in schools as perceived by educators and artists. Art Education Policy Review, 108, 3-13. doi:10.3200/AEPR.108.1.3-13

[3]   Bridgehouse, H., & Swift, A. (2003). Defending liberalism in education theory. Journal of Education Policy, 18, 355-373. doi:10.1080/0268093032000106820

[4]   Berlin, I. (1969). Four essays on liberty. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[5]   Burckhardt, J. (1990). Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. London: Penguin Classics.

[6]   Chrucky, A. (2003). The aim of liberal education. Di Text.

[7]   Efland, A. (1990). A history of art education, intellectual and social currents. In Teaching the visual arts. New York: Teachers’ College, Columbia University.

[8]   Gardner, J. (1961). Can we be excellent and equal too? New York: Harper and Row.

[9]   Gibbs, B. (1979). Autonomy and authority in education. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 13, 119-132. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9752.1979.tb00527.x

[10]   Gutmann, A. (1995). Civic education and social diversity. Ethics, 105, 557-579. doi:10.1086/293727

[11]   Guntovnik, G. (2003). The right to culture in a liberal society and in the State of Israel. Iyunei Mishpat, 27, 23.

[12]   Hobbes, T. (1997). Leviathan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[13]   Kymlicka, W. (1989). Liberalism community and culture. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

[14]   Kavolis, V. (1974). Arts, social and economic aspects. Encyclopedia Britannica. 102-122.

[15]   Kris, E. (1952). Psychoanalytic explorations in arts. New York: International University Press.

[16]   Kristeller, P. O. (1992). Renaissance humanism and its significance. In M. A. Di Cesare (Ed.), Reconsidering the Renaissance (pp. 29-43). Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies.

[17]   Levinson, M. (1999). Liberalism, pluralism, and political education: Paradox or paradigm? Oxford Review of Education, 25, 39-58. doi:10.1080/030549899104116

[18]   Locke, J. (1689). A letter concerning toleration.

[19]   London, P. (1989). No more secondhand art awakening the artist within. Boston: Shambhala.

[20]   Mill, J. S. (1989). On liberty and other writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[21]   Margalit, A., & Halbertal, M. (1998). Liberalism and the right to culture. In M. Meutner, A. Sagi and R. Shamir (Eds.), Multiculturalism in a Jewish democratic state (pp. 93-105). Tel Aviv: Ramot Publishing.

[22]   Maslow, A. (1964). Religion, values and peak experiences. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

[23]   Noy, P. (1999). Psychoanalysis of creative art. Tel Aviv: Modan.

[24]   Orwell, G. (1949). Nineteen eighty-four. Secker and Warburg.

[25]   Plato (1983). The republic, book II. Indianapolis: Hacket Publishing.

[26]   Ravitzky, A. (1995). Issues of tolerance in a Jewish framework: Between pluralism and paternalism. In A. Kasher and A. Nimdar (Eds.), Midot ve Regashot. Ramat Gan: Hoshen LeMishpat Publications.

[27]   Rice, E. F., & Grafton, A. (1994). The foundations of early modern europe 1460-1559. New York: Norton & Co.

[28]   Rogers, C. (1969). Freedom to learn: A view of what education could become. Columbus, Ohio: Charles Merill.Rousseau, J. J. (1762). Emile: Or on education. Roznov, A. (1986). The ideological and utopian foundations of education. Tel Aviv: Ramot Publishing.

[29]   Seneca (1969). Letters from a stoic. Translated by R. Campbell, London: Penguin.

[30]   Sher, G. (1997). Beyond neutrality: Perfectionism and politics 12. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511609169

[31]   Strauss, L., & Hutchins, R. M. (1959). What is liberal education? The tenth annual graduation exercises of the basic program of liberal education for adults.

[32]   Taylor, C., & Pippin, B. R. (1979). Hegel and modern society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[33]   Vasari, G. (1996). Lives of painters, sculptors and architects, 2, London: Everyman’s Library.

[34]   Wood, A. W. (2005). Kant. Oxford: Blackwell.

[35]   Yona, Y. (2007) The “just” and the “good”: Political liberalism as viewed by education. In D. Atas and D. Heyd (Eds.), The just teacher: A critical review of the theory of John Rewls. Jerusalem: Magnet Publishers.

[36]   Zimmerman, E. (1997). Excellence and equity issues in art education: Can we be excellent and equal too? Art Education Policy Review, 98, 4. doi:10.1080/10632913.1997.9936391

[37]   Bachar, P. (2004). The art teacher as perceived by educators and artists. In G. Melzer (Ed.), Hinuch ve Hanicha (pp. 199-213).

[38]   Kfar Sava: The Art School of Bet Berl Academic College.

[39]   Arbel, B. (2000). The Italian Renaissance: Development of secular culture. Humanist Education, 1, 76-77.Bachar, P. (2002). Methods for developing autonomous learning in the plastic arts. Ph.D. Thesis, Ramat Gen: Bar-Ilan University.

 
 
Top