OJER  Vol.4 No.1 , February 2015
Timing and Spouting Height of Sand Boils Caused by Liquefaction during the 2010 Mw 6.9 Yushu Earthquake, Tibetan Plateau, China
Author(s) Bing Yan1,2, Aiming Lin2*
Abstract
The 2010 Mw 6.9 Yushu earthquake produced a ~33-km-long co-seismic surface rupture zone along the pre-existing active Yushu Fault on China’s central Tibetan Plateau. Sand boils occurred along the tension cracks of the co-seismic surface rupture zone, and locally spouted up above the ground to coat the top of limestone blocks that had slid down from an adjacent ~300-m-high mountain slope. Based on our observations, the relations between the arrival times of P- and S-waves at the sand-boil location and the seismic rupture velocity, we conclude that 1) the sand boils occurred at least 18.24 s after the main shock; 2) it took at least 4.09 - 9.79 s after the formation of co-seismic surface rupture to generate liquefaction at the sand-boil location; 3) the spouting height of sand boils was at least 65 cm. Our findings help to clarify the relationships between the timing of lique-faction and the spouting height of sand boils during a large-magnitude earthquake.

Cite this paper
Yan, B. , Lin, A. (2015) Timing and Spouting Height of Sand Boils Caused by Liquefaction during the 2010 Mw 6.9 Yushu Earthquake, Tibetan Plateau, China. Open Journal of Earthquake Research, 4, 14-22. doi: 10.4236/ojer.2015.41002.
References

[1]   Lin, A.M., Rao, G., Jia, D., Wu, X.J., Yan, B. and Ren, Z.K. (2011) Co-Seismic Strike-Slip Surface Rupture and Displacement Produced by the 2010 Mw6.9 Yushu Earthquake, China, and Implications for Tibetan Tectonics. Journal of Geodynamics, 52, 249-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2011.01.001

[2]   Lin, A.M, Jia, D., Rao, G., Wu, X.J., Yan, B. and Ren, Z.K. (2011) Recurrent Morphogenic Earthquakes Occurred in the Past Millenarian on the Strike-Slip Yushu Fault, Tibetan Plateau. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 101, 2755-2764. http://dx.doi.org/10.1785/0120100274

[3]   Guo, J.M., Zheng, J.J., Guan, B.B., Fu, B.H., Shi, P.L., Du, J.G., Xie, C. and Liu, L. (2012) Coseismic Surface Rupture Structures Associated with 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu Earthquake, China. Seismological Research Letters, 83, 109-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.83.1.109

[4]   Xu, C., Xu, X.W., Lee, Y.H., Tan, X.B., Yu, G.H. and Dai, F.C. (2012) The 2010 Yushu Earthquake Triggered Landslide Hazard Mapping Using GIS and Weight of Evidence Modeling. Environmental Earth Sciences, 66, 1603- 1616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-1624-0

[5]   Rao, G., Lin, A., Jia, D., Wu, X., Yan, B. and Ren, Z. (2011) Co-Seismic Surface Strike-Slip Shear Structures Produced by the 2010 Mw 6.9 Yushu Earthquake, Central Tibetan Plateau. Tectonophysics, 507, 85-94.

[6]   Yoshimi, Y. (1987) Liquefaction of Sand Foundation. Gihodo Press, Tokyo, 65-107. (In Japanese)

[7]   Tuttle, M., Cowie, P., Tinsley, J., Benett, M. and Berrill, J. (1990) Liquefaction and Foundation Failure of Chevron Oil and Gasoline Tanks at Moss Landing, California. Geophysical Research Letters, 17, 1797-1800. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/GL017i010p01797

[8]   Holzer, T., Bennett, M., Ponti, D. and Tinsley III, J. (1999) Liquefaction and Soil Failure during 1994 Northridge Earthquake. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 125, 438-452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(1999)125:6(438)

[9]   Tokimatsu, K. and Asaka, Y. (1998) Effects of Liquefaction-Induced Ground Displacements on Pile Performance in the 1995 Hyogoken-Nambu Earthquake. Soils and Foundations, 2, 163-177.

[10]   Lin, A.M., Kano, K. and Maruyama, T. (2000) Liquefaction and Damages Caused by the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake, Western Japan. Structure Geology, the Journal of the Tectonic Research Group of Japan, 44, 1-4. (In Japanese)

[11]   Sonmez, B., Ulusay, R. and Sonmez, H. (2008) A Study on the Identification of Liquefaction-Induced Failures on Ground Surface Based on the Data from the 1999 Kocaeli and Chi-Chi Earthquakes. Engineering Geology, 97, 112- 125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2007.12.008

[12]   Ambraseys, N. and Sarma, S. (1969) Liquefaction of Soils Induced by Earthquakes. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 59, 651-664.

[13]   Holzer, T.L., Hanks, T.C. and Youd, T.L. (1989) Dynamics of Liquefaction during the 1987 Superstition Hills, California, Earthquake. Science, 244, 56-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.244.4900.56

[14]   Lin, A. (1997) Instantaneous-Shaking Liquefaction Induced by the M7.2 1995 Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake, Japan. Geology, 25, 435-438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1997)025<0435:ISLIBT>2.3.CO;2

[15]   Zhou, R., Wen, X., Cai, C. and Ma, S. (1997) Recent Earthquakes and Assessment of Seismic Tendency on the Ganzi-Yushu Fault Zone. Seismology and Geology, 19, 115-124.

[16]   Wen, X., Xu, X., Zheng, R., Xie, Y. and Wan, C. (2003) Average Slip-Rate and Recent Large Earthquake Ruptures along the Garzê-Yushu Fault. Science in China, Series D: Earth Sciences, 46, 276-288.

[17]   Peng, H., Ma, X., Bai, J. and Du, D. (2006) Characteristics of Quaternary Activities of the Ganzê-Yushu Fault Zone. Journal of Geomechanics, 12, 295-304.

[18]   Zhang, P., Shen, Z., Wang, M., Gan, W., Buergmann, R., Molnar, P., Wang, Q., Niu, Z., Sun, J., Wu, J., Sun, H. and You, X. (2004) Continuous Deformation of the Tibetan Plateau from Global Positioning System Data. Geology, 32, 809-812. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G20554.1

[19]   Shen, Z., Lu, J., Wang, M. and Burgmann, R. (2005) Contemporary Crustal Deformation around the Southeast Borderland of the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 110, Article ID: B11409.

[20]   Tobita, M., Nishimura, T., Kobayashi, T., Hao, H. and Shindo, Y. (2011) Estimation of Coseismic Deformation and a Fault Model of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake Using PALSAR Interferometry Data. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 307, 430-438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2011.05.017

[21]   Zhang, Y., Xu, S. and Chen, Y. (2010) Source Process of the 2010 Yushu, Qinghai, Earthquake. Science in China, Series D: Earth Sciences, 53, 1249-1251.

[22]   Galvé, A., Jiang, M., Hirn, A., Sapin, M., Laigle, M., de Voogd, B., Gallart, J. and Qian, H. (2006) Explosion Seismic P and S Velocity and Attenuation Constraints on the Lower Crust of the North-Central Tibetan Plateau, and Comparison with the Tethyan Himalayas: Implications on Composition, Mineralogy, Temperature, and Tectonic Evolution. Tectonophysics, 412, 141-157.

[23]   China Earthquake Networks Center, CENC (2010) Update of seismic parameters of the Qinghai Yushu M 7.1 Earthquake.
http://www.cea.gov.cn/manage/html/8a8587881632fa5c0116674a018300cf/_content/10_04/17/127
1490994651.html


[24]   Liu, C., Xu, L. and Chen, Y. (2010) IGP-CEA Moment Tensor Solution.
http://www.csi.ac.cn/manage/html/4028861611c5c2ba0111c5c558b00001/_content/10_04/17/127
1488288058.html


 
 
Top