ABSTRACT Chemical modification of lignin was carried out by reacted it with HI acid, then the modified lignin treated with calcium hydroxide to prepare calcium-lignin chelating complex, this derivative was examined as thermal stabilizer for PVC, thermal degradation of PVC neat as blank and containing three weight percents (1, 2, and 4) into polymer was accelerated by heat treatment at 190°C for 2 hr. then PVC films were casting from THF solvent with thickness 0.03 mm. Thermal stabilization activity of this derivative was investigated by using infrared spectroscopy, according to the results obtained calcium-lignin complex have suitable activity to increased PVC stability at low concentration depending on it’s ability to reaction with HCl as well as the chemical structure of lignin that contain phenolic properties.
Cite this paper
nullH. Shnawa, "Evaluation of Lignin-Calcium Complex as Thermal Stabilizer for Poly Vinyl Chloride," Materials Sciences and Applications, Vol. 2 No. 6, 2011, pp. 692-699. doi: 10.4236/msa.2011.26095.
 Alfred H. F. and Raymond W. H. (1959). “The mechanism of poly(vinyl chloride) tabilization by barium, cadmium, and zinc carboxylates. Infrared studies,”J. Polym. Sci. 40, 419-431.
 Ali T. Y. AL-Saraefi (2005), “Efficiency Study and Comparison of Lignin as Thermal and Photo Antioxidant for Low Density Polyethylene”, M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq, pp. 32-72.
 Dietrich Braun and Eugen Bezdadea (1986), Theory of Degradation and Stabilisation Mechanisms. In: Leonard I. Nass and Charles A. Heiberger, (eds), Encyclopedia of PVC, Vol. 1, Mercel Deckker Inc., N.Y. and Basel pp. 397-429 .
 Emad Yousif, Ayad Hameed, Adel Kamil, Yang Farina, Noora Asaad and 1Abdualbasit Graisa (2009), “Synthesis of New Polymers Derived from Poly (vinyl Chloride) and Study Their Biological Evaluation”, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3, 1786-1794.
 German C. Quintana, George J. M. Rocha, Adilson R. Gon?alves, and Jorge A. Velsquez (2008). “Evaluation of Heavy Metal Removal by Oxidised Lignnins in Acid Media from Various Sources”, BioResources 3(4), 1092- 1102.
 Goncalves A. R., Luz S. M., Chelation of Copper (II) Ions with Kraft Lignin, 10th International Symposium on Wood and Pulping Chemistry, Yokohama-Japan, 1999, Proceedings, Vol. III-Poster Presentations, pp. 410-413.
 Goncalves A. R., Luz S. M., Evaluation of the Removal of Heavy Metals by Kraft Lignin Considering Coprecipitation, Solubility and Coordination Capacity of the Ions Tested, 6th Brazilian Symposium on the Chemistry of Lignin and Other Wood Components, Guaratingueta-SP, Brazil, 2001, Proceedings pp. 266-269.
 Gould R. F., “Lignin Structure and Reactions”, Advance in Chemistry Series No. 59, Am. Chem. Soc. Washington, D.C. (1966).
 Halina Kaczmarek, Agnieszka Felczak, Dagmara Bajer and Dagmara Bajer (2009), “Photooxidative degradation of carboxylated poly(vinyl chloride)”, Polym. Bull. 62, 503-510.
 Heningway R.W., A.H. Conner, and S. J. baranham, “Adhesives from Renewable Resources, Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, D.C., PP: 13-42 (1989).
 Hussein A. Shnawa , Salah Sh, Al-Laibi ,and Naba Sh. Addai (2003), “Kinetic Study of Reaction The lignin With Phenol Formaldehyde Resins”, Iraqi J. Polymers ,7, 33-42.
 Jan F. Rabek (1970), “Experimental Methods in Polymer Chemistry”, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp: 221- 253.
 Karyakin A.V., G.V. Grishin. and B.D. Kurykin (1965), “A Study of Photodegradation of PolyvinylChloride By Infrared Spectroscopy”, Polymer Science USSR. 7, 389- 393.
 Mohamed N. A., Al-Magribi W. M.: N-(Substituted phenyl) itaconimides as organic stabilizers for rigid poly(vinyl chloride) against thermal degradation. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 78, 149-165 (2002).
 Mekki H., and M. Belbachir (2007), “Preparation of vinyl chloride – vinyl ether copolymers viapartial etherification from PVC”, eXPRESS Polymer Letters 11, 495-498
 Maria Giurginca, Traian Zaharescu, “Thermo-oxidative degradation of some polymer couples containing HNBR”, Polymer Bulletin 49, 357-362 (2003).
 Rashed Rasheed, Hadeel Mansoor, Emad Yousif, Ayad Hameed, Yang Farina and Abdualbasit Graisa, (2009), “Photostabilizing of PVC Films by 2-(Aryl)-5-[4-(Aryloxy)-Phenyl]-1,3,4-Oxadiazole Compounds, European Journal of Scientific Research, 30, pp. 464-477.
 Sarkanen K.V. and C.H. Ludwing (1971), “Lignin Occurance, Formation, Structure, and Reactions”, Wiley– Interscience & Son, Inc., N.Y., PP:1-65.
 Shigeo Hirose, Tatsuko Hatakeyama, and Hyoe Hatakeyama (2003). “Synthesis and Thermal Properties of Epoxy Resins from Ester – Carboxylic Acid Derivative of Alcoholysis Lignin”, Macromol. Symp. 179, 157-169.
 Taghizadeh M. T., N. Nalbandi, A. Bahadori (2008), Stabilizing effect of epoxidized sunflower oil as a secondary stabilizer for Ca/Hg stabilized PVC, eXPRESS Polymer Letters 2, 65-76.
 Owen E.D. (1984), “Degradation and Stabilisation of PVC”, Elsevier Applied Science Puplishers LTD., London & N.Y. pp: 21-252.