FNS  Vol.6 No.2 , February 2015
Nutritional and Sensory Evaluation of Rice-Based Masa Enriched with Soybean and Crayfish
Abstract: Masa is a cereal based snack made from rice, maize or millet. It is popularly consumed in the northern regions of Nigeria. The objective of this work was to assess the nutritional and sensory properties of the rice-Masa, enriched with soybean and crayfish. The enriched rice-Masa produced were labelled sample A (100% rice), sample B (rice: soybean blend (80:20), sample C (rice: crayfish blend (80:20) and sample D (rice: soybean: crayfish (80:10:10). The proximate and mineral composition was evaluated according to standard methods. Anti-nutrient content was also determined. Sensory evaluation was carried out to assess the acceptability of the enriched rice-Masa. The chemical analysis showed that protein, fibre, iron, zinc and vitamin A and beta carotene contents were highest in sample D with values 8.35 (±0.08) g/100g, 1.08 (±0.02) g/100g, 2.82 (±0.03) mg/100g, 4.20 (±0.03) mg/100g, 602.3 (±1.28) μg/100g and 420.2 (±0.98) μg/100g respectively, while calcium was highest in sample C with a value of 27.34 (±0.06) mg/100g. Moisture and ash contents increased from 47.4 (±0.50) g/100g to 50.9 (±0.80) g/100g and 0.40 (±0.01) g/100g to 1.15 (±0.01) g/100g respectively, while carbohydrate and energy contents decreased from 28.1 (±0.03) g/100g to 21.9 (±0.04) g/100g and 308.42 kcal/100g to 285.64 kcal/100g respectively. The sensory evaluation showed that with regards to taste, aroma, texture and overall acceptability, the sample enriched with soybean was more preferred to that enriched with crayfish, or a combination of both. Enrichment of Masa could contribute to improvement of nutritional status if promoted as a nutritious, healthy indigenous snack not only where Masa is already widely consumed, but also in other parts of Nigeria where it has not found wide acceptance.
Cite this paper: Samuel, F. , Ishola, O. and Otegbayo, B. (2015) Nutritional and Sensory Evaluation of Rice-Based Masa Enriched with Soybean and Crayfish. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 234-241. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.62024.

[1]   Aletor, O. and Ojelabi, A. (2007) Comparative Evaluation of Nutritive and Functional Attributes of Some Traditional Nigerian Snacks and Oil Seed Cakes. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 6, 99-103.

[2]   Ayo, J.A., Agu. H., Ayo, V.A. and Famoriyo, O.F. (2008) Effect of Groundnut Paste on the Quality of Maize Based Masa. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7, 557-560.

[3]   Nkama, I. and Malleshi, N.G. (1998) Production and Nutritional Quality of Traditional Nigerian Masa from Mixtures of Rice, Pearl Millet, Cowpea, and Groundnut. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 19, 366-373.

[4]   Akanbi, B.O., Agary, O.O. and Garba, S.A. (2010) Quality Assessment of Selected Cereal—Soybean Mixtures in “Ogi” Production. New York Science Journal, 3.

[5]   Nkama, I. (1993) Studies on Improving the Nutritional Quality of Masa. Tradition Nigeria Fermented Cereal Based Food. A Report. United Nations University CFTRI, Mysore.

[6]   FIIRO (2014) Historical Background of Cereals and Legumes Division of the Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi.

[7]   Samuel, F.O. and Otegbayo, B.O. (2006) Chemical Analysis and Sensory Evaluation of Ogi Enriched with Soybeans and Crayfish. Nutrition and Food Science, 36, 214-217.

[8]   Ayo, J.A., Agu. H., Ayo, V.A. and Famoriyo, O.F. (2008) Effect of Different Cereals on the Quality of Masa. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7, 530-533.

[9]   Owusu-Kwarteng, J., Akabanda, F. and Glover, R.L.K. (2010) Effect of Soybean Fortification on Fermentation Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability of Hausa Koko, a Ghanaian Fermented Porridge. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 28, 1712-1717.

[10]   Iombor, T.T., Umoh, E.J. and Olakumi, E. (2009) Proximate Composition and Organoleptic Properties of Complementary Food Formulated from Millet (Pennisetum psychostachynum), Soybeans (Glycine max) and Crayfish (Euastacus spp). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8, 1676-1679.

[11]   Plahar, W.A., Nti, C.A. and Annan, N.T. (1997) Effects of Soy Fortification Method on the Fermentation Characteristics and Nutritional Quality of Fermented Maize Meal. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 51, 365-380.

[12]   AOAC (2005) Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists International. 18th Edition, AOAC International, Gaithsburg.

[13]   Igwe, E.C., Oyebode, Y.B. and Dandago, M.A. (2013) Effect of Fermentation Time and Leavening Agent on the Quality of Laboratory Produced and Market Samples of Masa (a Local Cereal Based Puff Batter). African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 13, 8415-8427.

[14]   Hwang, D.L., Lin, K.T.D., Yang, W.K. and Foard, D.E. (1977) Purification, Partial Characterization, and Immunological Relationships of Multiple Low Molecular Weight Protease Inhibitors of Soybeans. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 495, 369-382.

[15]   Kim, W.S., Chronis, D., Juergens, M., Schroeder A.C., Hyun, S.W., Jez, J.M. and Krishnan, H.B. (2012) Transgenic Soybean Plants Overexpressing O-Acetylserine Sulfhydrylase Accumulate Enhanced Levels of Cysteine and Bowman —Birk Protease Inhibitor in Seeds. Planta, 235, 13-23.

[16]   Odumodu, C.U. (2008) Effect of Malt Addition and Fermentation on Sensory Characteristics of Formulated Cereal Based Complementary Food. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7, 321-324.