AS  Vol.6 No.2 , February 2015
Culture Mixed-Sex and Monosex of Tilapia in Ponds in Mexico City
In this study, the growth of Oreochromis niloticus both mixed sex and males sexually reversed were analyzed in concrete ponds in the FES Zaragoza, UNAM, under the environmental conditions of the Mexico City. The experiment was carried from May to November 2013, in two concrete ponds of 50 m2. Similar feeding regime and stocking density of fish were maintained for the culture systems. Different growth parameters like body weight, length, daily weight gain (DWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion rate (FCR), Fulton’s condition index (K) and survival were analyzed during six months culture period. It was found that culture with monosex males tilapias yielded the highest weight, length, DWG and SGR compared to mixed sex populations tilapias. Water quality was monitored along the experiment. Based on the results, there were statistically significant differences in size (W = 20942.5, p < 0.05) and weight (W = 21413.0, p < 0.05) between the divisions of the pond. The initial total length used was 1.2 cm and ended with 20.4 cm for monosex males, higher than mixed-sex population. The initial average body weight of the fish was 0.21 g and they recorded 192.2 g at the end of culture for monosex males. The weight-length relationship for both populations of fish was positive allometric. The percentage gain in body weight and total length averaged were 150% and 31.8% respectively. Specific growth rates in weight and length for monosex males were higher than mixed-sex population. Daily weight gain and size was similar in both populations. The FCR had a mean value of 1.9:1 for monosex males and condition factor (K) had an average of 1.45 for mixed-sex population. Water quality indicated good oxygenation (>5 mg/L), warm water (>20°C), productive (<100 mg/L CaCO3) and slightly basic (pH > 8). Acceptable growth of fish and a yield of 3 ton/ha/6 months were obtained in both two ponds; therefore, the culture of tilapia under conditions of Mexico City was recommended.

Cite this paper
Gómez-Márquez, J. , Peña-Mendoza, B. , Alejo-Plata, M. and Guzmán-Santiago, J. (2015) Culture Mixed-Sex and Monosex of Tilapia in Ponds in Mexico City. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 187-194. doi: 10.4236/as.2015.62017.
[1]   Admassu, D. (1996) The Breeding Season of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. in Lake Awassa (Ethiopian Rift Valley). Hydrobiologia, 337, 77-83.

[2]   Coward, K. and Bromage, N.R. (1998) Histological Classification of Oocyte Growth and the Dynamics of Ovarian Recrudescence in Tilapia zillii. Journal of Fish Biology, 53, 285-302.

[3]   Lin, Y.H., Lin, S.M. and Shiau, S.Y. (2008) Dietary Manganese Requirements of Juvenile Tilapia, Oreochromis nilotis x O.aureus. Aquaculture, 284, 207-210.

[4]   Gómez-Márquez, J.L., Pena-Mendoza, B., Salgado-Ugarte, I.H. and Guzmán-Arroyo, M. (2003) Reproductive Aspects of Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) at Coatetelco Lake, Morelos, Mexico. Revista de Biología Tropical, 51, 221-228.

[5]   Jiménez-Badillo, L. (2006) Age-Growth Models for Tilapia Oreochromis aureus (Perciformes: Cichlidae) of the Infiernillo Reservoir, Mexico and Reproductive Behavior. Revista de Biología Tropical, 54, 577-588.

[6]   Wohlfarth G.W. and Hulata, G. (1983) Applied of Tilapias. ICLARM Studies and Reviews 6. International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manila, 26 p.

[7]   Yi, Y., Lin, C.K. and Diana, J.S. (1996) Influence of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Stocking Density on Their Growth and Yield in Cages and Ponds Containing the Cages. Aquaculture, 146, 205-215.

[8]   El-Saidy, D.M.S.D. and Gaber, M.M.A. (2005) Effect of Dietary Protein Levels and Feeding Rates on Growth Performance, Production Traits and Body Composition of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) Cultured in Concrete Tanks. Aquaculture Research, 36, 163-171.

[9]   CONAPESCA (2012) Statistical Yearbook of Aquaculture and Fishery 2011. Dirección General de Planeación, Programación y Evaluación. Comision Nacional de Acuacultura y Pesca. Sagarpa, México.

[10]   Babiker, M. and Ibrahim, H. (1979) Studies on the Biology of Reproduction in the Cichlid Tilapia nilotica (Linneo): Gonadal Maturation and Fecundity. Journal of Fish Biology, 14, 437-448.

[11]   de Graaf, G.J., Galemoni, F. and Huisman, E.A. (1999) Reproductive Biology of Pond Reared Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. Aquaculture Research, 30, 25-33.

[12]   Lèveque, C. (2002) Out of Africa: The Success Story of Tilapias. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 64, 461-464.

[13]   Lahav, M. and Lahav, E. (1990) The Development of All-Male Tilapia Hybrids in Nir David. Bamidgeh, 42, 58-61.

[14]   Pandian, T.J. and Varadaraj, K. (1990) Techniques to Produce 100% Male Tilapia. NAGA, The ICLARM Quarterly, 7, 3-5.

[15]   Mair, G.C. and Little, D.C. (1991) Population Control in Farmed Tilapias. NAGA, The ICLARM Quarterly, 4, 8-13.

[16]   Angienda, P.O., Aketch, B.O. and Waindi, E.N. (2010) Development of All-Male Fingerlings by Heat Treatment and the Genetic Mechanism of Heat Induced Sex Determination in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). International Journal of Biological and Life Sciences, 6, 38-43.

[17]   El-Greisy, Z.A. and El-Gamal, A.E. (2012) Monosex Production of Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Using Different Doses of 17α-Methyltestosterone with Respect to the Degree of Sex Stability after One Year of Treatment. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 38, 59-66.

[18]   Bushan, S.C. and Banerjee, S. (2009) Culture of Monosex Nile Tilapia under Different Traditional and Non-Traditional Methods in India. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 1, 212-217.

[19]   Buddle, C.R. (1984) Androgen-Induced Sex-Inversion of Oreochromis (Trewavas) Hybrid Fry Stocked into Cages Standing in an Earthen Pond. Aquaculture, 40, 233-239.

[20]   Baltazar, G.P.M. (2009) Culture of Tilapia in Peru. Infopesca Internacional, 40, 21-26.

[21]   Vera Cruz, E.M. and Mairb, G.C. (1994) Conditions for Effective Androgen Sex Reversal in Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Aquaculture, 122, 237-248.

[22]   APHA, AWWA and WPCF (1992) Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Sewage and Wastewater. 18th Edition, EEUU, Washington DC.

[23]   Arredondo, F.J.L. and Ponce, J.T.P. (1998) Water Quality in Aquaculture: Concepts and Applications. AGT Editor, S.A. Mex-ico.

[24]   Nguyen, C.D. and Little, D.C. (2000) The Culture Performance of Monosex and Mixed-Sex New-Season and Overwintered Fry in Three Strains of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Northern Vietnam. Aquaculture, 184, 221-231.

[25]   Ergün, S., Guroy, D., Tekesoglu, H., Guroy, B., Celic, I., Tekinay, A.A. and Bulut, M. (2010) Optimum Dietary Protein Level for Blue Streak Hap, Labidochromis caeruleus. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 10, 27-31.

[26]   Pauly, D. (1984) Fish Population Dynamics in Tropical Waters: A Manual for Use with Programmable Calculators. International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Studies and Reviews 8, Manila.

[27]   Steel, D.G.R. and Torrie, J.H. (1981) Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach. McGraw-Hill, Nueva York.

[28]   Marques, D.S. and Ma, J. (2004) Probability and Statistics for Chemical Biological Sciences. National Autonomous University of Mexico, Campus Zaragoza, México, D.F.

[29]   Dagne, A., Degefu, F. and Lakew, A. (2013) Comparative Growth Performance of Mono-Sex and Mixed-Sex Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in Pond Culture System at Sebeta, Ethiopian. International Journal of Aquaculture, 3, 30-34.

[30]   Jo, J.Y., Smitherman, R.O. and Tave, D. (1995) Effect of Six Levels of Dietary 17α-Methyltestosterone on Sex-Reversal and Growth of Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus). Journal of Aquaculture, 8, 77-83.

[31]   Mair, G.C., Abucay, J.S., Beardmore, J.A. and Skibinski, D.O.F. (1995) Growth Performance Trials of Genetically Male Tilapia (G17α-MT) Derived from YY-Males in Oreochromis niloticus L.: On Station Compositions with Mixed Sex and Sex Reversed Male Populations. Aquaculture, 137, 313-332.

[32]   Dan, N.C. and Little, D.C. (2000) The Culture Performance of Monosex and Mixed-Sex New-Season and Overwintered Fry in Three Strains of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ) in Northern Vietnam. Aquaculture, 10, 32-34.

[33]   Chakraborty, S.B. and Banerjee, S. (2010) Comparative Growth Performance of Mixed-Sex and Monosex Nile Tilapia Population in Freshwater Cage Culture System under Indian Perspective. International Journal of Biology, 2, 44-50.

[34]   Diana, J.S., Lin, C.K. and Schneeberger, P.J. (1991) Relationships among Nutrient Inputs, Water Nutrient Concentrations, Primary Production, and Yield of Oreochromis niloticus in Ponds. Aquaculture, 92, 323-341.

[35]   Diana, J.S., Lin, C.K. and Jaiyen, K. (1994) Supplemental Feeding of Tilapia in Fertilized Ponds. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 25, 497-506.

[36]   Siddiqui, A.Q., Howlader, M.S. and Adam, A.B. (1989) Culture of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) at Three Stocking Densities in Outdoor Concrete Tanks Using Drainage Water. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, 20, 49-57.

[37]   Ahmed, G.U., Sultana, N., Shamsuddin, M. and Hossain, M.B. (2013) Growth and Production Performance of Monosex Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fed with Homemade Feed in Earthen Mini Ponds. Pakistan Journal Biology Science, 16, 1781-1785.

[38]   Nutritional Research Council (NRC) (1993) Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academy of Press, Washington DC.

[39]   Arredondo-Figueroa, J.L., Matsumoto-Soulé, J.J., Ponce-Palafox, J.T., Shirai-Matsumoto, K. and Gómez-Márquez, J.L. (2012) Effects of Protein and Lipids on Growth Performance, Feed Efficiency and Survival Rate in Fingerlings of Bay Snook (Petenia splendida). International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 4, 204-213.

[40]   Morales, D.A. (1991) The Tilapia in México. Biology, Culture and Fisheries. AG Editor, S.A. Mexico.

[41]   El-Sayed, A.F.M. and Kawanna, M. (2008) Optimum Water Temperature Boosts the Growth Performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fry Reared in a Recycling System. Aquaculture Research, 39, 670-672.

[42]   Handeland, S.O., Imsland, A.K. and Stefansson, S.O. (2008) The Effect of Temperature and Fish Size on Growth, Feed Intake, Food Conversion Efficiency and Stomach Evacuation Rate of Atlantic Salmon Post-Smolts. Aquaculture, 283, 36-42.

[43]   Xie, S., Zheng, K., Chen, J., Zhang, Z., Zhu, X. and Yang, Y. (2011) Effect of Water Temperature on Energy Budget of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture Nutrition, 17, e583-e690.