AA  Vol.5 No.1 , February 2015
Ethnicity, Labor and Indigenous Populations in the Ecuadorian Amazon, 1822-2010
ABSTRACT
According to most recent research, Indians in Ecuador’s Amazonian region (the Oriente) lived outside of modern markets and political systems until around 40 years ago. But this view obscures the essential role of indigenous labor in earlier cycles of extractivism and exploitation. Beginning in the 18th century, lowland Quichua and other ethnic groups were defined as much by their place within long-distance economic networks as they were by their languages or cultures. Using newly discovered historical records and other sources, we can now reconstruct the ebb and flow of commodity booms in Amazonian Ecuador and their impact on indigenous populations.

Cite this paper
Wasserstrom, R. & Bustamante, T. (2015). Ethnicity, Labor and Indigenous Populations in the Ecuadorian Amazon, 1822-2010. Advances in Anthropology, 5, 1-18. doi: 10.4236/aa.2015.51001.
References
[1]   Almagro, M. (1866). Breve descripción de viajes hechos en América por la Comisión Científica enviada por el Gobierno de S.M.C. durante los anos de 1862 a 1866. Madrid: Imprenta de M. Rivadeneyra.

[2]   Alomía, A. (1936 [1906]). La Defensa del Oriente Ecuatoriano. Quito: Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores.

[3]   Barbieri, A. F., & Carr, D. L. (2005). Gender-Specific Out-Migration, Deforestation and urbanization in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Global and Planetary Change, 47, 99-110.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2004.10.005

[4]   Barham, B., & Coomes, O. (1996). Prosperity’s Promise. The Amazon Rubber Boom and Distorted Economic Development. Boulder: Westview Press.

[5]   Barral, H., & Orrego, C. (1978). Informe sobre la colonización en la Provincia del Napo y las transformaciones de las sociedades indígenas. Quito: Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería.

[6]   Bebbington, A., & Ramón, G. (Eds.) (1992). Actores de una Década Ganada: Tribus, Comunidades y Campesinos en la Modernidad. Quito: COMUNIDEC.

[7]   Beghin, F. J. (1963). Putumayo. Napo. Pastaza. Informe general de las investigaciones y estudios realizados sobre la Región Oriental por el etnólogo Francisco Javier Beghin, de conformidad con lo establecido en el contrato suscrito por el Senor Director del I. N. C. con el referido etnólogo. Quito: Instituto Nacional de Colonización.

[8]   Bennett Ross, J. (1984). Effects of Contact on Revenge Hostilities among the Achuara Jívaro. In R. B. Ferguson (Ed.), Warfare, Culture and Environment (pp. 83-109). New York: Academic Press.

[9]   Blackmon, D. (2008). Slavery by Another Name. The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II. New York: Anchor Books.

[10]   Bravo, V. (1907). Viaje al Oriente de Quito al Curaray (1). Boletín de la Sociedad Geográfica de Lima, 21, 48-67.

[11]   Bravo, V. M. (1920). Viaje al Oriente: Segunda Parte. En la Región del Curaray—1906. Quito: Imprenta del E. M. G.

[12]   Bromley, R. (1972). Agricultural Colonization in the Upper Amazon Basin. The Impact of Oil Discoveries. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, 63, 278-294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9663.1972.tb01179.x

[13]   Brown, M. F., & Fernández, E. (1991). War of Shadows: The Struggle for Utopia in the Peruvian Amazon. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520074354.001.0001

[14]   Brown, M. F., & Fernández, E. (1992). Tribe and State in a Frontier Mosaic: The Ashánika of Eastern Peru. In R. B. Ferguson, & N. Whitehead (Eds.), War in the Tribal Zone (pp. 175-198). Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research.

[15]   Cabodevilla, M. A. (1994). Los Huaorani en la historia de los pueblos del Oriente. Coca: CICAME.

[16]   Cabodevilla, M. A. (1996). Coca. La Región y su Historia. Coca: CICAME.

[17]   Cabodevilla, M. A. (2010). La Nación Waorani. Noticias históricas y territorio. Orellana: Vicariato Apostólica de Aguarico.

[18]   Casagrande, J. B., Thompson, S. I., & Young, P. D. (1964). Colonization as a Research Frontier: The Ecuadorian Case. In R. A. Manners (Ed.), Process and Pattern in Culture (pp. 281-325). Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company.

[19]   Castrucci de Vernazza, M. (1849). Viaje practicado desde El Callao hasta las misiones de las dos tribus de infieles záparos y gívaros. Lima: Imprenta de Justo Montoya.

[20]   Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador (CONFENIAE) (1995). Tierras y Territorios Indígenas en la Amazonía: Elementos Jurídicos para un Diagnóstico Regional. La Cuestión Indígena en Ecuador. Volume III, Anxex IV. Cuadro E-1. In Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Perú/Tratado de Cooperación Amazónica-Secretaría Pro Tempore. Lima: Ministerio Exteriores del Perú.

[21]   Consejo de Desarrollo de las Nacionalidades y Pueblos del Ecuador (CODENPE) (2003). Diagnóstico de la Nacionalidad Huaorani. http://www.codenpe.gov.ec/waorani.htm

[22]   Cuvi, N. (2011). The Cinchona Program (1940-1945): Science and Imperialism in the Exploitation of a Medicinal Plant. Dynamis, 31, 183-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.4321/S0211-95362011000100009

[23]   Dall’Alba, L. (1992). Pioneros, nativos y colonos. El Dorado en el siglo XX. Quito: Ediciones Abya Yala, Petroecuador y Misión Josefina del Napo.

[24]   Descola, P. (1981). From Scattered to Nucleated Settlement: A Process of Socioeconomic Change among the Achuar. In N. Whitten (Ed.), Cultural Transformations and Ethnicity in Modern Ecuador (pp. 614-646). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

[25]   Erazo, J. (2013). Governing Indigenous Territories. Durham: Duke University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/9780822378921

[26]   Esvertit, N. (2008). La incipiente provincial. Amazonia y Estado ecuatoriano en el siglo XIX. Quito: Universidad Andina Simón Bolivar.

[27]   Ferguson, R. B., & Whitehead, N. L. (1992). The Violent Edge of Empire. In R. B. Ferguson, & N. Whitehead (Eds.), War in the Tribal Zone (pp. 1-30). Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research.

[28]   Fitton, L. J. (1999). Is Acculturation Healthy? Biological, Cultural, and Environmental Change among the Cofán of Ecuador. Ph.D. Thesis, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

[29]   Foletti Castegnaro, A. (1985). Tradición oral de los Quichuas Amazónicos del Aguarico y San Miguel. Quito: Ediciones Abya Yala.

[30]   Foner, E. (1988). Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877. New York: Harper & Row.

[31]   Fuentes, H. (1908). Loreto. Apuntes geográficos, históricos, estadísticos, políticos y sociales, Vol. II. Lima: Imprenta de La Revista.

[32]   Gamarra, M. del P. (1996). La frontera nómada: Frentes y fronteras económicas en el proceso cauchero ecuatoriano (1870-1920). Revista Ecuatoriana de Historia, 9, 41-77.

[33]   García, G. (1909). Informe del Gobernador de la Provincia de Oriente al Ministerio de Instrucción Pública y Oriente. Quito: Tipografía de la Escuela de Artes y Oficios.

[34]   Gianotti, E. (1928). Statistica d’Oriente. Río Napo. Coca: Fundación Labaka.

[35]   Gianotti, E. (1997). Viajes por el Napo: Cartas de un misionero. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala.

[36]   Golub, A. (1982). The Upper Amazon in Historical Perspective. Ph.D. Thesis, New York: City University of New York.

[37]   Grenard, P., & Grenard, F. (2000). Equatorial America. In S. Bahuchet (Ed.), The Situation of Indigenous Peoples in Tropical Forests. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/Sonja/RF/Ukpr/Report.htm

[38]   Harner, M. J. (1972). The Jívaro: People of the Sacred Waterfalls. Garden City: Doubleday/Natural History Press.

[39]   Henderson, P. V. N. (2008). Gabriel García Moreno and Conservative State Formation in the Andes. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

[40]   Hill, J. (1996). Introduction. In J. Hill (Ed.), History, Power, and Identity: Ethnogenesis in the Americas, 1492-1992 (pp. 1-19). Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press.

[41]   Hill, J. (1999). Indigenous Peoples and the Rise of Independent Nation-States in Lowland South America. In F. Salomon, & S. B. Schwartz (Eds.), The Cambridge History of Native Peoples of the Americas, Vol. III, Part 2: South America (pp. 704-764). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[42]   Hiraoka, M., & Yamamoto, S. (1980). Agricultural Development in the Upper Amazon of Ecuador. Geographical Review, 70, 423-445. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/214077

[43]   Holloway, H. L. (1932). East of the Ecuadorian Andes. Geographical Journal, 80, 410-419.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1784228

[44]   Hudelson, J. (1981). The Expansion and Development of Quichua Transitional Culture in the Upper Amazon Basin. Ph.D. Thesis, New York: Columbia University.

[45]   Hutchins, F. (2007). Footprints in the Forest: Ecotourism and Altered Meanings in Ecuador’s Upper Amazon. Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology, 12, 75-103.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/jlat.2007.12.1.75

[46]   Hutchins, F. (2010). Ecotourism, Cultural Reproduction, and the Logic of Capital in Ecuador’s Upper Amazon. In F. Hutchins, & P. C. Wilson (Eds.), Editing Eden: A Reconsideration of Identity, Politics, and Place in Amazonia (pp. 3-37). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

[47]   Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC) (1950-2010). Censos Nacionales de Población y Vivienda. Quito: INEC.

[48]   Jameson, W. (1858). Excursion Made from Quito to the River Napo, January to May, 1857. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, 28, 337-349. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1798328

[49]   Jiménez de la Espada, M. (1998 [1927-1928]). Diario de la expedición al Pacifico llevada a cabo por una comisión de naturalistas espanoles durante los anos 1862 a 1865. Boletín de la Sociedad Geográfica, 67-68, 1-246. (Madrid)

[50]   Junta Nacional de Planificación y Coordinación Económica (JNPC) (1963). El aprovechamiento de la tierra y el mar, Tomo II, Reforma a la Estructura de Tenencia de la Tierra y Expansión de la Frontera Agrícola, Capitulo II, Colonización. Quito: JNPC.

[51]   Kohn, E. (2013). How Forests Think: Toward an Anthropology beyond the Human. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520276109.001.0001

[52]   Krupa, C. (2010). State by Proxy: Privatized Government in the Andes. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 52, 319-350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S001041751000006X

[53]   Loch, E. E. (1938). Fever, Famine and Gold. New York: G.P. Putman’s Sons.

[54]   López, S., & Sierra, R. (2011). A Resource Demand Model of Indigenous Production: The Jivaroan Cultivation Systems of Western Amazonia. Agricultural Systems, 104, 246-257.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2010.10.003

[55]   Luque, J. (2008). Embracing the Past: Conflict, Conservation, and Organization in Ecuador’s Upper Amazon. Journal of Ecological Anthropology, 12, 54-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.5038/2162-4593.12.1.4

[56]   Macdonald, T. (1997). De cazadores a ganaderos. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala.

[57]   Macdonald, T. (1999). Ethnicity and Culture amidst New “Neighbors”: The Runa of Ecuador’s Amazon Region. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

[58]   Macdonald, T. (2002). Ecuador’s Indian Movement: Pawn in a Short Game or Agent in State Reconfiguration? In D. Maybury-Lewis (Ed.), The Politics of Ethnicity: Indigenous Peoples in Latin American States (pp. 169-197). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

[59]   Magalli, J. M. (1889). Carta Sobre la Misión Dominicana en Canelos. Quito: La Nación Y Cía.

[60]   Magalli, J. M. (1890). Colección de Cartas sobre las Misiones Dominicanas del Oriente. Quito: Imprenta de Juan Pablo Sanz.

[61]   McSweeney, K., & Arps, S. (2005). A “Demographic Turnaround”: The Rapid Growth of Indigenous Populations in Lowland Latin America. Latin American Research Review, 40, 3-29.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lar.2005.0012

[62]   Mercier, J. M. (1979). Nosotros los Napu-Runa. Mitos e Historia de Indígenas de Perú. Iquitos: Centro de Estudios Teológicos de la Amazonía.

[63]   Muratorio, B. (1991). The Life and Times of Grandfather Alonso. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

[64]   Newson, L. A. (1995). Life and Death in Early Colonial Ecuador. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

[65]   Oberem, U. (1980). Los Quijos: Historia de la transculturación de un grupo indígena en el Oriente Ecuatoriano. Otavalo: Instituto Otavaleno de Antropología.

[66]   Orton, J. (1871). The Andes and the Amazon: Or, across the Continent of South America. New York: Harper & Brothers.

[67]   Osculati, G. (2003 [1854]). Exploraciones de las regiones ecuatoriales a lo largo del Napo y del rino de las Amazonas. Quito: Ediciones Abya Yala.

[68]   Perreault, T. A. (2002). Movilización política e identidad indígena en el alto Napo. Quito: Ediciones Abya Yala.

[69]   Perreault, T. (2003a). Changing Places: Transnational Networks, Ethnic Politics, and Community Development in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Political Geography, 22, 61-88.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-6298(02)00058-6

[70]   Perreault, T. (2003b). A People with Our Own Identity: Toward a Cultural Politics of Development in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 21, 583-606.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d339

[71]   Perreault, T. (2003c). Social Capital, Development, and Indigenous Politics in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Geographical Review, 93, 328-349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1931-0846.2003.tb00036.x

[72]   Perreault, T. (2003d). Making Space: Community Organization, Agrarian Change, and the Politics of Scale in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Latin American Perspectives, 30, 96-121.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0094582X02239146

[73]   Pierre, F. (1983 [1889]). Viaje de exploración al Oriente Ecuatoriano—1887-1888. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala.

[74]   Porras, P. (1973 [1905]). Los indios civilizados. Reprinted in Antropología. Cuadernos de Investigación, 9, 122-141.

[75]   Reeve, M. E. (1988). Cauchu Uras: Lowland Quichua Histories of the Amazon Rubber Boom. In J. Hill (Ed.), Rethinking History and Myth: Indigenous South American Perspectives on the Past (pp. 19-34). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

[76]   Reeve, M. E. (1994). Regional Interaction in the Western Amazon: The Early Colonial Encounter and the Jesuit Years: 1538-1767. Ethnohistory, 41, 106-138.

[77]   Reeve, M. E. (2014). Amazonian Quichua in the Western Amazon Regional Interaction Sphere. Tipití: Journal of the Society for the Anthropology of Lowland South America, 12, 14-27.

[78]   Rice, A. H. (1903). From Quito to the Amazon via the Rio Napo. Geographical Journal, 21, 401-418.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1775681

[79]   Rival, L. (1996). Hijos del Sol, padres del jaguar. Los Huaorani de ayer y hoy. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala.

[80]   Rival, L. (2002). Trekking through History. New York: Columbia University Press.

[81]   Robinson, S. (1971). Sky Chief (Film). Antropología Visual. Universidad Metropolitana de México and University of California. http://www.antropologiavisual.net/2007/sky-chief/

[82]   Robinson, S. (1979). Toward an Understanding of Kofan Shamanism. Ph.D Thesis, Ithaca: Cornell University.

[83]   Rogers, M. (1996). Beyond Authenticity: Conservation, Tourism, and the Politics of Representation in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Identities, 3, 73-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1070289X.1996.9962553

[84]   Rudel, T., & Horowitz, B. (1993). Tropical Deforestation: Small Farmers and Land Clearing in the Ecuadorian Amazon. New York: Columbia University Press.

[85]   Ruíz, L. (1997). El pueblo Cofán. In M. Ventura (Ed.), Etnografías mínimas del Ecuador (pp. 117-142). Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala.

[86]   Samaniego, J., & Toro, J. (1939). Monografía de algunas poblaciones de la Región Oriental. Quito: Ministerio de Defensa Nacional.

[87]   Santos Granero, F., & Barclay, F. (1999). Tamed Frontiers: Economy, Society and Civil Rights in Upper Amazonia, 1851-1990. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

[88]   Sawyer, S. (2004). Crude Chronicles: Indigenous Politics, Multinational Oil, and Neoliberalism in Ecuador. Durham: Duke University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/9780822385752

[89]   Simson, A. (1886). Travels in the Wilds of Ecuador, and the Exploration of the Putumayo River. London: S. Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington.

[90]   Stanfield, M. E. (1998). Red Rubber, Bleeding Trees. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.

[91]   Steel, D. (1999). Trade Goods and Jívaro Warfare: The Shuar, 1850-1957, and the Achuar, 1940-1978. Ethnohistory, 46, 745-776.

[92]   Taylor, A. C. (1981). God-Wealth: The Achuar and the Missions. In N. Whitten (Ed.), Cultural Transformations and Ethnicity in Modern Ecuador (pp. 647-676). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

[93]   Taylor, A. C. (1994). El oriente ecuatoriano en el siglo XIX: “El otro litoral.” In J. Maiguashca (Ed.), Historia y Región en el Ecuador, 1830-1930 (pp. 17-68). Quito: FLACSO.

[94]   Taylor, A. C. (1999). The Western Margins of Amazonia from the Early Sixteenth to the Early Nineteenth Century. In F. Salomon, & S. B. Schwartz (Eds.), The Cambridge History of Native Peoples of the Americas, Vol. III, Part 2, South America (pp. 188-257). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[95]   Tovía, G. (1893). Carta del R. P. Gaspar Tovía al Excmo. Sr. Dr. Don Luis Cordero sobre los últimos sucesos de la Provincia Oriental. Quito: Imprenta del Gobierno.

[96]   Trujillo, J. N. (2001). Memorias del Curaray. Quito: Fondo Ecuatoriano Populorum Progresso.

[97]   Uquillas, J. E. (1985). Indian Land Rights and Natural Resource Management in the Ecuadorian Amazon. In T. Macdonald Jr. (Ed.), Native Peoples and Economic Development: Six Case Studies from Latin America (pp. 87-103). Cambridge: Cultural Survival.

[98]   Uzendoski, M. (2005). The Napo Runa of Amazonian Ecuador. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

[99]   Vickers, W. T. (1981). The Jesuits and the SIL: External Policies for Ecuador’s Tucanoans through Three Centuries. In S. Hvalkof, & P. Aaby (Eds.), Is God an American? An Anthropological Perspective on the Missionary Work of the Summer Institute of Linguistics (pp. 51-62). Copenhagen: International Work Group on Indigenous Affairs and Survival International.

[100]   Vickers, W. T. (2003). The Modern Political Transformation of the Secoya. In N. E. Whitten Jr. (Ed.), Millennial Ecuador (pp. 46-72). Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press.

[101]   Villavicencio, M. (1858). Geografía de la República del Ecuador. New York: R. Craighead.

[102]   Wasserstrom, R., & Southgate, D. (2013). Deforestation, Agrarian Reform and Oil Development in Ecuador, 1964-1994. Natural Resources, 4, 31-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/nr.2013.41004

[103]   Wasserstrom, R. (2014). Surviving the Rubber Boom: Cofán and Siona Society in the Colombia-Ecuador Borderlands (1875-1955). Ethnohistory, 61, 525-548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/00141801-2681786

[104]   Whitehead, N. L. (1992). Tribes Make States and States Make Tribes: Warfare and the Creation of Colonial Tribes and States in Northeastern South America. In R. B. Ferguson, & N. Whitehead (Eds.), War in the Tribal Zone (pp. 127-150). Santa Fe, NM: School of America Research.

[105]   Whitten, N. (1976). Sacha Runa: Ethnicity and Adaptation of the Ecuadorian Jungle Quichua. Champaign-Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

[106]   Whitten, N. (2011). Ethnogenesis and Interculturality in the “Forest of Canelos”: The Wild and the Tame Revisited. In A. Honborg, & J. D. Hill (Eds.), Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia: Reconstructing Past Identities from Archaeology, Linguistics, and Ethnohistory (pp. 9641-9976). Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado (Kindle Edition).

[107]   Wiener, C. (2011 [1882]). El Amazonas y las Cordilleras, 1879-82. In J. Gómez Rendón (Ed.), Ecuador en las páginas de “Le Tour du Monde” (pp. 163-264). Quito: Consejo Nacional de Cultura.

[108]   Wilson, P. C. (2002). Indigenous Federations, NGOs, and the State: Development and the Politics of Culture in Ecuador’s Amazon. Ph.D Thesis, Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh.

[109]   Wilson, P. C. (2010). Indigenous Leadership and the Shifting Politics of Development in Ecuador’s Amazon. In F. Hutchins, & P. C. Wilson (Eds.), Editing Eden: A Reconsideration of Identity, Politics, and Place in Amazonia (pp. 218-245). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

[110]   Wolf, E. (1982). Europe and the People without History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

[111]   Woodroffe, J. F. (1914). The Upper Reaches of the Amazon. London: Meuthuen & Co. Ltd.

[112]   Yashar, D. (2005). Contesting Citizenship in Latin America: The Rise of Indigenous Movements and the Postliberal Challenge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511790966

[113]   Yungjohann, J. C. (1989 [1916]). White Gold: The Diary of a Rubber Cutter in the Amazon 1906-1916. Oracle, AZ: Synergetic Press.

 
 
Top