AiM  Vol.5 No.1 , January 2015
Root Growth, Mycorrhizal Frequency and Soil Microorganisms in Strawberry as Affected by Biopreparations
Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of various biopreparations on the growth of the strawberry root system, the number of spores of mycorrhizal fungi, the total number of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil, and the degree of mycorrhizal association in the roots of two strawberry cultivars. The experiment with strawberry plants was established in the spring of 2010 in the Experimental Orchard of the Institute of Horticulture in Dabrowice. The objects of research were “frigo” strawberry plants of the cultivars Elsanta and Elkat. The following experimental combinations were used: control, control NPK (standard NPK fertilization), manure, mycorrhizal preparation Micosat F, Humus UP, Humus Active + Aktywit PM, BioFeed Amin, BioFeed Quality, Tytanit, Vinassa, Florovit Eko, and Florovit Pro Natura. The use of the biopreparation BioFeed Quality resulted in a six-fold increase in root length and a seven-fold increase in root surface area. Compared with NPK fertilization, application of the preparation BioFeed Amin contributed to an eight-fold increase in root volume, and the use of Vinassa increased 24-fold the number of root tips of Elkat strawberry plants. Micosat F and Humus UP caused a five-fold increase in mycorrhizal frequency in the roots of strawberry plants. Micosat F and manure contributed to a two- and four-fold increase, respectively, in the number of spores in the rhizosphere soil. Application of the preparations Humus UP, BioFeed Amin and Florovit Eko doubled the total number of bacteria and filamentous fungi in the rhizosphere soil of strawberry plants of the cultivars Elsanta and Elkat in comparison with NPK fertilization. Fertilization with the biopreparations intensified the growth of the root system and increased the number of spores of AM fungi, mycorrhizal frequency, and the total number of bacteria and filamentous fungi in the soil.
Cite this paper: Derkowska, E. , Paszt, L. , Harbuzov, A. and Sumorok, B. (2015) Root Growth, Mycorrhizal Frequency and Soil Microorganisms in Strawberry as Affected by Biopreparations. Advances in Microbiology, 5, 65-73. doi: 10.4236/aim.2015.51007.

[1]   Azcon-Aquilar, C. and Barea, J.M. (1992) Interactions between Mycorrhizal Fungi and Other Rhizosphere Microorganisms. In: Allen, M.J., Ed., Mycorrhizal Functioning, an Integrative Plant-Fungal Process, Chapman and Hall, New York, 163-198.

[2]   Smith, S.E. and Read, D.J. (1997) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic Press, London, 605.

[3]   Linderman, R.G. (2000) Effects of Mycorrhizas on Plant Tolerance to Diseases. In: Kapulnik, Y. and Douds Jr., D.D., Eds., Arbuscular Mycorrhizas: Physiology and Function, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 345-365.

[4]   Cox, G. and Tinker, B.B. (1976) Translocation and Transfer of Nutrients in Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycirrhizas I. The Arbuscule and Phosphorus Transfer: Quantitative Ultrastruktural Study. New Phytologist, 77, 371-378.

[5]   Vessey, J.K. (2003) Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria as Biofertilizers. Plant and Soil, 255, 571-586.

[6]   Glick, B.R. (1995) The Enhancement of Plant Growth by Free Living Bacteria. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 41, 109-117.

[7]   Jeffries, P., Gianinazzi, S., Perotto, S., Turnau, K. and Barea, J.M. (2003) The Contribution of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Sustainable Maintenance of Plant Health and Soil Fertility. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 37, 1-16.

[8]   Zahir, Z.A., Arshad, M. and Frankenberger, W.T. (2004) Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria: Applications and Perspectives in Agriculture. Advances in Agronomy, 81, 97-168.

[9]   Maciejewska, A. and Kwiatkowska, J. (2001) Wplyw nawozu organiczno-mineralnego z wegla brunatnego na plony i zawartosc K, Mg, Ca w roslinach. Zeszyty Problemowe Postepow Nauk Rolniczych, 480, 281-289.

[10]   Nardi, S., Pizzeghello, D., Muscolo, A. and Vianello, A. (2002) Physiological Effects of Humic Substances on Higher Plants. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 34, 1527-1536.

[11]   Litterick, A.M., Harrier, L., Wallace, P., Watson, C.A. and Wood, M. (2004) The Role of Uncomposted Materials, Composts, Manures and Compost Extracts in Reducing Pest and Disease Incidence and Severity in Sustainable Temperate Agricultural and Horticultural Crop Production—A Review. Critical Reviews Plant Sciences, 23, 453-479.

[12]   Turgay, O.C., Karaca, A., Unver, S. and Tamer, N. (2011) Effects of Coal-Derived Humic Substance on Some Soil Properties and Bread Wheat Yield. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 42, 1050-1070

[13]   Sobiczewski, P. (2001) Stan obecny i perspektywy ochrony sadow i szkolek przed chorobami bakteryjnymi. Progress in Plant Protection, 41, 291-298.

[14]   Sobiczewski, P., Berczynski, S., Szczepaniak, J., Filip, A., Wlodarczyk, S. and Majdziak, K. (2001) Sposob wytwarzania biopreparatu na podlozu stalym do ochrony podkladek drzew owocowych i rozy przed guzowatoscia korzeni. Patents, 3, B1 (11) 16767547.

[15]   Utkhede, R.S. and Smith, E.M. (1992) Promotion of Apple Growth and Fruit Production by the EBW-4 Strain of Bacillus subtilis in Apple Replant Disease Soil. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 38, 1270-1273.

[16]   Utkhede, R.S. and Smith, E.M. (1993) Evaluation of Monoammonium Phosphate and Bacterial Strains to Increase Tree Growth and Fruit Yield in Apple Replant Problem Soil. Plant and Soil, 157, 115-120.

[17]   Mazzola, M., Granatstein, D.M., Elfving, D.C., Mullinix, K. and Gu, Y.H. (2002) Cultural Management of Microbial Community Structure to Enhance Growth of Apple in Replant Soils. Phytopathology, 92, 1363-1366.

[18]   Vieira, F.C.S. and Nahas, E. (2005) Comparison of Microbial Numbers in Soils by Using Various Culture Media and Temperatures. Microbiological Research, 160, 197-202.

[19]   Chang, E.H., Chung, R.S. and Tsai, Y.H. (2007) Effect of Different Application Rates of Organic Fertilizer on Soil Enzyme Activity and Microbial Population. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 53, 132-140.

[20]   Derkowska, E., Sas Paszt, L., Sumorok, B. and Dyki, B. (2013) Colonization of Apple and Blackcurrant Roots by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Following Mycorrhization and the Use of Organic Mulches. Folia Horticulturae, 25, 117-122.

[21]   Trouvelot, A., Kough, J.L. and Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. (1986) Mesure du taux de mycorhization VA d’un systeme radiculaire. Recherche de methods d’estimation ayant une signification fonctionnelle. In: Gianinazzi-Pearson V. and Gianinazzi, S., Eds., Physiological and Genetical Aspects of Mycorrhizae, Inra, Paris, 217-221.

[22]   Arsenault, J.L., Poulcur, S., Messier, C. and Guay, R. (1995) WIN-RHIZO a Root-Measuring System with a Unique Overlap Correction Method. HortScience, 30, 906.

[23]   Blaszkowski, J. (2003) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (Glomeromycota). Endogone and Complexipes Species Deposited in the Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture in Szczecin, Poland.

[24]   Blaszkowski, J. (2008) Metody izolowania, hodowania i identyfikowania arbuskularnych grzybow mikoryzowych z gromady Glomeromycota. In: Mulenko, W., Ed., Mykologiczne Badania Terenowe. Przewodnik Metodyczny, Wydawnictwo UMCS, Lublin, 142-163.

[25]   Sas Paszt, L., Sumorok, B., Malusá, E., Gluszek, S. and Derkowska, E. (2011) The Influence of Bioproducts on Root Growth and Mycorrhizal Occurrence in the Rhizosphere of Strawberry Plants “Elsanta”. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research, 19, 13-34.

[26]   Malusa, E., Sas-Paszt, L., Popinska, W. and Zurawicz, E. (2007) The Effect of a Substrate Containing Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Rhizosphere Microorganisms (Trichoderma, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Streptomyces) and Foliar Fertilization on Growth Response and Rhizosphere pH of Three Strawberry Cultivars. International Journal Fruit Science, 6, 25-41.

[27]   Ding, C., Shen, Q., Zhang, R. and Chen, W. (2013) Evaluation of Rhizosphere Bacteria and Derived Bio-Organic Fertilizers as Potential Biocontrol Agents against Bacterial Wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) of Potato. Plant Soil, 366, 453-466.

[28]   Pesakovic, M., Karaklajic-Stajic, Z., Milenkovic, S. and Mitrovic, O. (2013) Biofertilizer Affecting Yield Related Characteristics of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) and Soil Micro-Organisms. Scientia Horticulturae, 150, 238-243.

[29]   Sas Paszt, L., Frac, M. and Przybyl, M. (2013) Biostymulatory w uprawie truskawek. Jagodnik, 6, 4-7.