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 OJPP  Vol.5 No.1 , February 2015
The Misconceived Search for the Meaning of “Speech” in Freedom of Speech
Abstract: In this (very) short essay, I establish these points: All speech is symbolic; any conduct can be used to communicate a message (i.e., symbolically); government’s purpose in regulating, and not a speaker’s intention to communicate, defines the realm of freedom of expression; and determining the value of speech has a denominator problem.
Cite this paper: Alexander, L. (2015) The Misconceived Search for the Meaning of “Speech” in Freedom of Speech. Open Journal of Philosophy, 5, 39-42. doi: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.51005.
References

[1]   Alexander, L. (1989). Low Value Speech. Northwestern University Law Review, 83, 547-554.

[2]   Alexander, L. (2005). Ch. 2: Freedom of Expression and Regulations that Affect Messages But are Not Enacted for That Reason. In Is There a Right of Freedom of Expression? (pp. 13-37). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614668.003

[3]   Benjamin, S. M. (2013). Algorithms and Speech. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 161, 1445-1494.

[4]   Calvert, C. (2013). Fringes of Free Expression: Testing the Meaning of “Speech” Amid Shifting Cultural Mores & Changing Technologies. Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal, 22, 545-590.

[5]   International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. v. Lee, 505 U.S. 830 (1992).

[6]   Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council, 505 U.S. 1003 (1992).

[7]   Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973).

[8]   Mt. Healthy City Board of Education v. Doyle, 429 U.S. 274 (1977).

[9]   Roth v. United States, 354 U.S. 476 (1957).

[10]   Rubenfeld, J. (2001). The First Amendment’s Purpose. Stanford Law Review, 52, 767-832.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1229492

[11]   Schneider v. State, 308 U.S. 147 (1939).

[12]   United States v. O’Brien, 397 U.S. 367 (1968).

[13]   Symbolic Expression and the Original Meaning of the First Amendment. The Georgetown Law Journal, 97, 1057-1084.

[14]   Wayte v. United States, 470 U.S. 598 (1985).

[15]   Winters v. New York, 333 U.S. 507 (1948).

[16]   Wu, T. (2013). Machine Speech. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 161, 1495-1533.

[17]   Young v. American Mini Theatres, Inc., 427 U.S. 50 (1976).

 
 
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