The phenomena of the first order phase
transition (two-dimensional melting) of grain boundary at temperatures 0.6 -
0.9 TS0 (of the solid state melting point), discovered by the author (1971), is
a fundamental property of solid crystalline materials. This finding leads to a
principal revision of the scientific concepts of the solid state of substance.
The phenomenological description and justification of the finding are
developed. The generalized equation of Clausius-Clapeyron type for
two-dimensional phase transition was obtained by applying the mathematical
tools of the film thermodynamics. The equation has been used for calculating
the grain boundary phase transition(GBPhT) temperature TSf of any metal, which
TSf value lies within the range of (0.55 - 0.86) TS0. The investigation
outcomes are applied to develop the methodology for more effective hard coating
formation by synthesis of nanosize nitrides and carbonitrides in surface layers
of steels and nickel alloys using a thermo-chemical processing (TChP).
Production of an overall nitrogen concentration gradient from 4% to 0.5% at
within surface layers leads to formation of modified coatings with a stepped
change in properties. The mechanical behavior of new tools at the industrial
tests indicated a higher heat resistance (nickel alloys), high resistance to
surface wears and fragile breaks-down (chromium tool steels). A short overview
of the results of some graded alloys characterization is presented.
Cite this paper
Minaev, Y. (2015) Phenomena of Intergranular Liquid Film Formation in Technology. Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering
, 8-14. doi: 10.4236/msce.2015.31002
 Minaev, Yu.A. (1972) Surface Layers of Pure Substances. ZhFKh, 46, 1090-1094.
 Kuznetsov, O.A. (Ed.) (2005) Scientific Discoveries: Collection of Short Descriptions of Scientific Discoveries, Scientific Hypotheses, 2004. RAEN, Moscow. (In Russian)
 Flad, A. (1970) Interphase Boundary Gas-Solid. Mir, Moscow, 18. (In Russian)
 Frenkel, Ya.I. (1959) Kinetics Theory of Liquids. RAN USSR, Moscow, Lenin-grad.
 Slezov, V.V. (1981) Effective Coefficient of Grain Boundary Diffusion in Polycrystals. Dokl.AN USSR, 257, 871-875.
 Harrison, L.G. (1961) Influence of Dislocations on Diffusion Kinetics in Solids with Particular Reference to the Alkali Halides. Transactions of the Faraday Society, 57, 1191-1199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/tf9615701191
 Bokshtein, S.Z., Kishkin, S.T., Mishin, Y.M. and Razumovsky, I.M. (1985) Theory and Experimental Verification of the Method of Separate Determination of Boundary Diffusion Coefficient and the Diffusion Width of the Grain Boundaries. Dokl.AN USSR, 280, 1125-1128.
 Ralph, B. (1968) Field-Ion Microscopy. Plenum Press, Cambridge.
 Rusnaov, A.I. (1967) Phase Equilibria and Surface Phenomena. Khimiya, Leningrad. (In Russian);
 Krotov, V.V. and Rusanov, A.I. (1999) Physicochemical Hydrodynamics of Capillary Systems. Imperial College Press, London.
 Inoko, F. and Yoshikawa, T. (1996) Deformation, Recrystallization and Premelting in Bicrystals. Materials Science Forum, 204-206, 379-388. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.204-206.379
 Minaev, Yu.A. (2007) Phase Transitions in Surface Layers of Polycrystalline Solids. ZhFKh, 81, 1-4.
 Kablov, E.N. (2001) Alloy Blade Turbine Engines. Alloys. Technology. Coating. MISiS, Moscow. (In Russian)