ABSTRACT Background: The high protein (HP) breakfast reduced gastric emptying and the most satiat-ing macronutrient appears to be dietary protein. Few studies have investigated the effects of protein to energy ratio in breakfast on mood, alertness and attention. Objective: This study was designed to investigate whether the HP breakfast is more beneficial to mood, alertness and attention of the healthy undergraduate student than adequate-protein (AP) breakfast through the rising body temperature and re-maining stable blood glucose or through other physiologic processes. Methods: Thirteen healthy male undergraduate students (18 - 23 y) were studied in a double-blind, randomized crossover design. Blood samples, body tem-perature, satiety, mood and Continuous Per-formance Test (CPT) were assessed after the consumption of two isocaloric breakfasts that differed in their protein and carbohydrate con-tent: an HP breakfast (50%, 30%, and 20% of energy from protein, carbohydrate, and fat, re-spectively) or an AP breakfast (10%, 70%, and 20% of energy from protein, carbohydrate, and fat, respectively). Results: Consumption of an HP breakfast resulted in more steady glucose and insulin than AP breakfast consumption (p < 0.05). Satiety scores and body temperature were higher after HP breakfast consumption (p < 0.05). And most important, the positive mood and CPT scores were higher after HP breakfast than after AP breakfast intake (p < 0.05). Conclusion: HP breakfast can effectively stabilize postprandial serum glucose concentration and elevate post-prandial temperature of healthy male under-graduate students. Our present findings dem-onstrate the relationship between HP breakfast and mood, alertness and attention. This study indicated that HP breakfast may enhance human performance probably by increasing the thermic effect of a food and elevating body temperature.
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nullZeng, Y. , Li, S. , Xiong, G. , Su, H. and Wan, J. (2011) Influences of protein to energy ratios in breakfast on mood, alertness and attention in the healthy undergraduate students. Health, 3, 383-393. doi: 10.4236/health.2011.36065.
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