IJIS  Vol.5 No.2 , January 2015
An Experiment in Use of Brain Computer Interfaces for Cognitive Researches
Abstract: Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are systems that are primarily developed for use of paralyzed people. Although their main aim of use has a medical point of view, they can also be used for different aims such as entertainment and cognitive researches. Since BCI systems have specific brain potentials (P300, steady state evoked potential) and ERD/ERS (Motor Imagery), they are also flexible tools for cognitive science. In this study, an experiment was conducted with 30 participants. Each participant completed two tasks through a BCI and filled NASA-TLX forms. The results were analyzed using paired t-tests to see whether BCI tasks are significantly different in terms of creating cognitive load. The results showed that NASA-TLX scores of the BCI tasks were significantly different and these systems can be considered for estimating cognitive states studies.
Cite this paper: Ozkan, N. and Kahya, E. (2015) An Experiment in Use of Brain Computer Interfaces for Cognitive Researches. International Journal of Intelligence Science, 5, 80-88. doi: 10.4236/ijis.2015.52008.

[1]   Tracy, J.P. and Albers, M.J. (2006) Measuring Cognitive Load to Test the Usability of Web Sites. Society for Technical Communication 53rd Annual Conference, Las Vegas, 7-10 May 2006, 256-260.

[2]   Hussain, S., Chen, S.Y., Calvo, R.A. and Chen, F. (2011) Classification of Cognitive Load from Task Performance & Multichannel Physiology during Affective Changes. MMCogEmS: Inferring Cognitive and Emotional States from Multimodal Measures, ICMI 2011 Workshop, 17 November 2011, Alicante.

[3]   Cain, B. (2007) A Review of the Mental Workload Literature. Defence Research and Development Canada, Toronto.

[4]   Antonenko, P., Paas, F., Grabner, R. and van Gog, T. (2010) Using Electroencephalography to Measure Cognitive Load. Educational Psychology Review, 22, 425-438.

[5]   Haapalainen, E., Kim, S., Forlizzi, J.F. and Dey, A.K. (2010) Psycho-Physiological Measures for Assessing Cognitive Load. Proceedings of the 12th ACM International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, Copenhagen, 26-29 September 2010, 301-310.

[6]   Walczyk, J.J., Griffith, D.A., Yates, R., Visconte, S.R., Simoneaux, B. and Harris, L.L. (2012) Lie Detection by Inducing Cognitive Load Eye Movements and Other Cues to the False Answers of “Witnesses” to Crimes. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 887-909.

[7]   Hart, S.G. and Staveland, L.E. (1988) Development of NASA-TLX (Task Load Index): Results of Empirical and Theoretical Research. Advances in Psychology, 52, 139-183.

[8]   Hart, S.G. (2006) NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX); 20 Years Later. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 50, 904-908.

[9]   Rubio, S., Díaz, E., Martín, J. and Puente, J.M. (2004) Evaluation of Subjective Mental Workload: A Comparison of SWAT, NASA-TLX, and Workload Profile Methods. Applied Psychology, 53, 61-86.

[10]   Noyes, J.M. and Bruneau, D.P. (2007) A Self-Analysis of the NASA-TLX Workload Measure. Ergonomics, 50, 514-519.

[11]   Alm, H. and Nilsson, L. (1995) The Effects of a Mobile Telephone Task on Driver Behaviour in a Car Following Situation. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 27, 707-715.

[12]   Yurko, Y.Y., Scerbo, M.W., Prabhu, A.S., Acker, C.E. and Stefanidis, D. (2010) Higher Mental Workload Is Associated with Poorer Laparoscopic Performance as Measured by the NASA-TLX Tool. Simulation in Healthcare, 5, 267-271.

[13]   Miyake, S. (2001) Multivariate Workload Evaluation Combining Physiological and Subjective Measures. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 40, 233-238.

[14]   Ozkan, N.F. and Kahya, E. (2014) Measurement of Cognitive Workload by Use of Combined Methods Including Brain-Computer Interfaces. Advances in Social and Organizational Factors, 12, 458-468.

[15]   Karagoz, M., Alkac, U., Ergen, N., Erdamlar, N. and Alpkan, L. (2005) Psikiyatrik Hastaliklarda Elektrofizyolojik (P300) Yontemler. Düsünen Adam, 18, 210-216.

[16]   Alkac, U. ( 2009) Beyin Arastirmalari Tarihinde Bir Gezinti: Elektronorofizyoloji. Klinik Gelisim, 3, 14-19

[17]   Schultheis, H. and Jameson, A. (2004) Assessing Cognitive Load in Adaptive Hypermedia Systems: Physiological and Behavioral Methods. In: De Bra, P.M.E. and Nejdl, W., Eds., Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems, Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, 225-234.

[18]   Gencer, N., Usakli, A.B., Erdogan, H.B., Akinci, B. and Acar, E. (2010) ODTü Beyin Arastirmalari Laboratuvari: Beyin-Bilgisayar Arayüzü calismalari. ODTüLü, 45, 20-21

[19]   Perego, P., Turconi, A.C., Andreoni, G., Maggi, L., Beretta, E., Parini, S. and Gagliardi, C. (2011) Cognitive Ability Assessment by Brain-Computer Interface: Validation of a New Assessment Method for Cognitive Abilities. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 201, 239-250.